Knowing But Not Doing: Selecting Priority Conservation Areas and the Research–Implementation Gap
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
©2008 Society for Conservation Biology
Volume 22, Issue 3, pages 610–617, June 2008
How to Cite
KNIGHT, A. T., COWLING, R. M., ROUGET, M., BALMFORD, A., LOMBARD, A. T. and CAMPBELL, B. M. (2008), Knowing But Not Doing: Selecting Priority Conservation Areas and the Research–Implementation Gap. Conservation Biology, 22: 610–617. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00914.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Paper submitted May 22, 2007; revised manuscript accepted October 15, 2007.
- 2003. Conservation planning in the real-world: South Africa shows the way. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:435–438.
- 2001. Linking ecological scales and institutional frameworks for landscape rehabilitation. Ecological Management and Restoration 2:28–35.
- 2003. Biodiversity: where's hot and where's not. Conservation Biology 17:1442–1448. , and .
- 2000. Bioregional planning: resource management beyond the new millennium. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam .
- 1995. Practical methods for conserving biodiversity. Pages 11–26 in R. A.Bradstock, T. D.Auld, D. A.Keith, R. T.Kingsford, D.Lunney, and D. P.Sivertsen, editors. Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney . , and .
- 2001. Design of reserve networks and the persistence of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16:242–248. , and .
- 2005. Overcoming obstacles to interdisciplinary research. Conservation Biology 19:574–577.
- 2006. Ecology for transformation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:309–315. , and .
- 2007. Social assessment as a key to conservation success. Oryx 41:135. , and .
- 1999. From representation to persistence: requirements for a sustainable reserve system in the species-rich Mediterranean-climate deserts of southern Africa. Diversity & Distributions 5:51–71. , , , , and .
- 2004. Nature conservation requires more than a passion for species. Conservation Biology 18:1674–1677. , , , , , , , , and .
- 1999. Systematic reserve selection in the U.S.A.: an example from the Columbia Plateau ecoregion. Parks 9:31–41. , , and .
- 1986. The design of a nature reserve system for Indonesian New Guinea. Pages 485–503 in M. E.Soulé, editor. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland , Massachusetts .
- 2000. War and peace and conservation biology. Conservation Biology 14:105–112.
- 1997. A world of wounds: ecologists and the human dilemma. Ecology Institute , Oldendorf/Kuhe , Germany .
- 2005. What do conservation biologists publish? Biological Conservation 124:63–73. , , and .
- 2005. The two-culture problems: ecological restoration and the integration of knowledge. Restoration Ecology 13:159–164.
- 1998. Managing ecological systems and processes. Pages 459–483 in D. L.Peterson, and V. T.Parker, editors. Ecological scale: theory and applications. Columbia University Press, New York .
- 2000. National-scale conservation assessments at an appropriate resolution. Diversity and Distributions 6:195–204. , , and .
- 2004. Envisioning alternatives: using citizen guidance to map future land and water use. Ecological Applications 14:325–341. , , and .
- 1998. Training idiot savants: the lack of human dimensions in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 12:263–267. , and
- 1999. Balancing the Earth's accounts. Nature 401:323–324. , , and .
- 2002. A review of the efficacy of the protected area system of east Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Natural Areas Journal 22:28–42. , , and .
- 2001. Adaptive learning for science-based policy: the Everglades restoration. Ecological Economics 37:403–417. , , and .
- 1983. An iterative method for establishing priorities for the selection of nature reserves: an example from Tasmania. Biological Conservation 25:127–134.
- 1991. Planning for species conservation. Pages 83–89 in C. R.Margules and M. P.Austin, editors. Nature conservation: cost effective biological surveys and data analysis. CSIRO, Canberra , Australia . , and .
- 2006. Failing but learning: writing the wrongs after Redford and Taber. Conservation Biology 20:1312–1314.
- 2006. Into the thick of it: bridging the research-implementation gap in the Thicket Biome through the Thicket Forum. South African Journal of Science 102:406–408. , and .
- 2007. Embracing opportunism in the selection of priority conservation areas. Conservation Biology 21:1124–1126. , and .
- 2006a. An operational model for implementing conservation action. Conservation Biology 20:408–419. , , and .
- 2006b. Designing systematic area-selection studies that promote effective implementation: best practice from South Africa. Conservation Biology 20:739–750. , et al.
- 1993. Compass and gyroscope: integrating science and politics for the environment. Island Press, Washington , D.C.
- 2003. Science and management in a conservation crisis: a case study with rhinoceros. Conservation Biology 17:968–975.
- 2000. It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts. Nature 405:393. , et al.
- 2000. Promoting sustainable behaviour: an introduction to community-based social marketing. Journal of Social Issues 56:543–554.
- 2007. Reconciling the supply of scientific information with user demands: an analysis of the problem and review of the literature. Environmental Science and Policy 10:17–38.
- 2000. Identification of conservation-worthy areas in Northern Zululand, South Africa. Conservation Biology 14:155–166. , and .
- 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253. , and .
- 2005. Foundations of transdisciplinarity. Ecological Economics 53:5–16.
- 2001. The context of conservation biology. Conservation Biology 15:815–816.
- 2006. Conservation biology at twenty. Conservation Biology 20:595–596. , , and .
- 2006. Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:681–687. , , , , , and .
- 1999. Is there a special conservation biology? Ecography 22:113–122.
- 1997. The science of conservation planning: habitat conservation under the Endangered Species Act. Island Press, Washington , D.C. , , and .
- 2001. Bridging the gap between ecology and spatial planning in landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 16:767–779. , , and .
- 2003. The evolutionary roots of our environmental problems. The Quarterly Review of Biology 78:275–301.
- 1991. A critique for ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , United Kingdom .
- 1999. Knowing “what” to do is not enough: turning knowledge into action. California Management Review 42:83–107. , and .
- Pickett, S. T. A., R. S.Ostfeld, M.Shachak, and G. E.Likens, editors. 1997. The ecological basis for conservation. Chapman & Hall, New York .
- 2005. Systematic conservation-planning products for land-use planning: interpretation for implementation. Biological Conservation 125:441–458. , , , , , and .
- 1995. The future of biodiversity. Science 269:347–350. , , , and .
- 1999. The gaps between theory and practice in selecting nature reserves. Conservation Biology 13:484–492. , , and .
- 1998. Algorithms, politics & timber: an example of the role of science in a public, political negotiation process over new conservation areas in production forests. Pages 73–87 in R.Wills and R.Hobbs, editors. Ecology for everyone: communicating ecology to researchers, the public and the politicians. Surrey Beatty, Sydney .
- 1999. Systematic conservation planning for the real world. Parks 9:1–6.
- 2002. The first reserve selection algorithm—a retrospective on Jamie Kirkpatrick's 1983 paper. Progress in Physical Geography 26:434–441.
- 2001. Reserve selection algorithms and the real world. Conservation Biology 15:275–277. , and .
- 2001. Scheduling conservation action in production landscapes: priority areas in western New South Wales defined by irreplaceability and vulnerability to vegetation loss. Biological Conservation 100:355–376. , and .
- 1996. Optimality in reserve selection algorithms: when does it matter and how much? Biological Conservation 76:259–267. , , and .
- 2004. Do conservation managers use scientific evidence to support their decision-making? Biological Conservation 19:245–252. , and .
- 2000. Writing the wrongs: developing a safe-fail culture in conservation. Conservation Biology 14:1567–1568. , and .
- 2000. Robustness of reserve selection procedures under temporal species turnover. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B. 267:49–55. , , and .
- 2006. Designing large-scale conservation corridors for pattern and process. Conservation Biology 20:549–561. , , , , and .
- 2002. Improving the practice of conservation: a conceptual framework and research agenda for conservation science. Conservation Biology 16:1469–1479. , , , and .
- 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conservation Biology 5:18–32 , , and .
- 1983. The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books, New York .
- 2003. Governance and the loss of biodiversity. Nature 426:67–70. , , , , and .
- 2003. Action research and big fuzzy concepts. Human Ecology Reviews 10:176–177.
- 1986. Conservation biology and the real world. Pages 5–12 in M. E.Soulé, editor. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland , Massachusetts .
- Soulé, M. E., and J. W.Terborgh, editors. 1999. Continental conservation: scientific foundations of regional reserve networks. Island Press, Washington , D.C.
- 1980. Conservation biology: an evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland , Massachusetts . , and .
- 2006. The production of knowledge: the challenge of social science research. Oxford University Press, Oxford , United Kingdom .
- 2002. The influence of the academic conservation biology literature on endangered species recovery planning. Conservation Ecology 6:15 http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss2/art15. , , , , , and .
- 2002. Fuzzy assessment of land suitability for scientific research reserves. Environmental Management 29:545–558. , , and .
- 2000. Incorporating biological information in local land-use decision making: designing a system for conservation planning. Landscape Ecology 15:35–45. , , , , , and .
- 2006. Linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:445–477. , and .
- 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277:494–499. , , , and .
- 2001. Conservation biology: a displacement behavior for academia? Conservation Biology 15:1–3. , , and .
- 1998. Consilience: the unity of knowledge. Abacus, London .