SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Literature Cited

  • Agrawal, A., and A. Chhatre. 2007. State involvement and forest cogovernance: evidence from the Indian Himalayas. Studies in Comparative International Development 42:6786.
  • Aizen, V. B., E. M. Aizen, J. M. Melack, and J. Dozier. 1997. Climate and hydrologic change in the Tien Shan, Central Asia. Journal of Climate 10:13931404.
  • Aizen, V. B., V. A. Kuzmichenok, A. B. Surazakov, and E. M. Aizen. 2007. Glacier changes in the Tien Shan as determined from topographic and remotely sensed data. Global and Planetary Change 56(3–4):328340.
  • Anderson, K., and A. Bows. 2008. Reframing the climate change challenge in light of post-2000 emissions trends. Transactions of the Royal Academy-A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366:38633882.
  • Anismov, O. A. 2007. Potential feedback of thawing permafrost to the global climate system through methane emission. Environmental Research Letters DOI:DOI: 10.1088/1748--9326/2/4/045016.
  • Baker, B. B., and R. K. Moseley. 2007. Advancing treeline and retreating glaciers: implications for conservation in Yunnan, P. R. China. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39:200209.
  • Barnett, T. P., J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in a snow-dominated region. Nature 438:303309.
  • Bates, B. C., Z. W.Kundzewicz, S.Wu, and J. P.Palutikof, editors. 2008. Climate change and water. Technical paper. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva .
  • Battisti, D., and R. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 323:240244.
  • Becker, A., C. Körner, J. Brun, A. Guisan, and U. Tappelner. 2007. Ecological and land use studies along elevational gradients. Mountain Research and Development 27:5865.
  • Beniston, M. 2003. Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Climatic Change 59:531.
  • Blakie, P., and J. Muldavin. 2004. Upstream, downstream, China, India: the politics of environment in the Himalayan region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94:520548.
  • Bohn, T. J., D. P. Lettenmaier, K. Sathulur, L. C. Bowling, E. Podest, K. C. McDonald, and T. Friborg. 2007. Methane emissions from western Siberian wetlands: heterogeneity and sensitivity to climate change. Environmental Research Letters DOI:DOI: 10.1088/1748--9326/2/4/045015.
  • Burkett, V. R., et al. 2005. Nonlinear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: case studies and policy implications. Ecological Complexity 2:357394.
  • Byg, A., and J. Salick. 2009. Tibetan perceptions of climate change in the eastern Himalayas. Global Environmental Change: in press.
  • Camarero, J. J., and E. Gutierrez. 2002. Plant species distribution across two contrasting treeline ecotones in the Spanish Pyrenees. Plant Ecology 162:247257.
  • Chen, X. W., X. S. Zhang, and B. L. Li. 2003. The possible response of life zones in China under global climate change. Global and Planetary Change 38:327337.
  • Chen, Y., and D. Zhang. 2008. Historical evidence for population dynamics of Tibetan migratory locust and the forecast of its outbreak. Insect Science 6:135145.
  • Chen, Y. N., K. Takeuchi, C. C. Xu, Y. P. Chen, and Z. X. Xu. 2006. Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim basin, China. Hydrological Process 20:22072216.
  • Corlett, R., and J. Lafrankie. 1998. Potential impacts of climate change on tropical Asian forests through an influence on phenology. Climate Change 39:439453.
  • Costa-Cabral, M. C., J. E. Richey, G. Goteti, D. P. Lettenmaier, C. Feldkötter, and A. Snidvongs. 2008. Landscape structure and use, climate, and water movement in the Mekong River Basin. Hydrological Processes 22:17311746.
  • Cox, P. A., and K. N.Cox, editors. 1997. Encyclopaedia of rhododendron species. Glendoick Publishing, Perth , Australia .
  • Cruz, R., et al. 2007. Asia. Pages 469506 in M.Parry, et al. editors. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , United Kingdom .
  • Dhar, S. 2009. Rising sea salinates India's Ganges: expert. Reuters , London . Available from http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSTRE5111RC20090202 (accessed February 2009).
  • Dubey, B., R. Yadav, J. Singh, and R. Chaturvedi. 2003. Upward shift of Himalayan pine in Western Himalaya, India. Current Science 85:11351136.
  • Dyurgerov, M. D., and M. F. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and changing earth system: a 2004 snapshot. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research , University of Colorado, Boulder , Colorado .
  • Gleick, P. H. 2003. Global freshwater resources: soft-path solutions for the 21st century. Science 302:15241528.
  • Gong, T. L. 2006. Mechanism of hydrological cycle and water resource management stragedy in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin. PhD dissertation, Beijing Normal University , Beijing .
  • Grace, J., F. Berninger, and L. Nagy. 2002. Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany 90:537544.
  • Grey, D., and C. W. Sadoff. 2007. Sink or swim? Water security for growth and development. Water Policy 9:545571.
  • Hahn, D. G., and S. Manabe. 1975. The role of mountains in the South Asian monsoon circulation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 32:15151541.
  • Hansen, J., et al. 2008. Target atmospheric CO2: where should humans aim? The Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2:217231.
  • Hartman, D. L. 1994. Global physical climatology. Academic Press, San Diego , California .
  • He, J., Z. Wang, X. Wang, B. Schimid, W. Zuo, and M. Zhou. 2008. A test of the generality of leaf trait relationships on the Tibetan Plateau. New Phytologist 174:835848.
  • Hofer, T., and B. Messerli. 2006. Floods in Bangladesh: history, dynamics and rethinking the role of the Himalaya. United Nations University Press, New York .
  • Holtmeier, F., and G. Broll. 2005. Sensitivity and response of northern hemisphere altitudinal and polar treelines to environmental change at landscape and local scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14:395410.
  • Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15:5661.
  • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007a. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Pages 235336 in S.Solomon, et al. editors. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , United Kingdom .
  • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007b. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Pages 470506 in M.Parry, et al. editors. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , United Kingdom .
  • Jones, M., and A. Donnelly. 2004. Carbon sequestration in temperate grassland ecosystems and the influence of management, climate and elevated CO2. New Phytologist 164:423439.
  • Klein, J. A., J. Harte, and X. Q. Zhao. 2004. Experimental warming causes large and rapid species loss, dampened by simulated grazing, on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecology Letters 7:11701179.
  • Körner, C. 2004. Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function. Ambio 13:1117.
  • Körner, C. 2007. The use of ‘altitude’ in ecological research. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22:570574.
  • Kudo, G. 1991. Effects of snow-free period on the phenology of alpine plants inhabiting snow patches. Arctic Alpine Research 23:436443.
  • Larson, A., and F. Soto. 2008. Decentralization of natural resource governance regimes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33:213239.
  • Lenoir, J., J. C. Gegout, P. A. Marquet, P. De Ruffray, and H. Brisse. 2008. A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th Century. Science 320:17681771.
  • Li, B. L., and C. H. Zhou. 2001. Climatic variation and desertification in west sandy land of Northeast China Plain. Journal of Natural Resources 16:234239.
  • Li, X., G. Cheng, H. Jin, S. Kang, T. Che, R. Jin, L. Wu, and Z. Nan. 2008. Cryospheric change in China. Global and Planetary Change 62:210218.
  • Liu, S. Y., Y. J. Ding, J. Li, D. H. Shangguan, and Y. Zhang. 2006. Glaciers in response to recent climate warming in Western China. Quaternary Sciences 26:762771.
  • Liu, X., and B. Chen. 2000. Climatic warming in the Tibetan Plateau during recent decades. International Journal of Climatology 20:17291742.
  • Liu, X. D., and P. Hou. 1998. Relationship between the climatic warming over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its surrounding areas in recent 30 years. Plateau Meteorology 17:245249 (in Chinese).
  • Logan, J. D., W. Wolesensky, and A. Joern. 2006. Temperature-dependent phenology and predation in arthropod system. Ecological Modelling 196:471482.
  • Luo, T. X., Y. D. Pan, H. Ouyang, P. L. Shi, J. Luo, Z. L. Yu, and Q. Lu. 2004. Leaf area index and net primary productivity along subtropical to alpine gradients in the Tibetan Plateau. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13:345358.
  • Ma, X., J. C. Xu, Y. Luo, S. P. Aggarwal, and J. T. Li. 2009. Response of hydrological processes to land cover and climate change in Kejie Watershed, Southwest China. Hydrological Processes DOI: DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7233.
  • McCarty, J. P. 2001. Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conservation Biology 15:320331.
  • Meehl, G. A. 1997. The South Asian monsoon and the tropospheric biennial oscillation. Journal of Climate 1997:19211943.
  • Menzel, A., T. H. Sparks, N. Estrella, and E. Koch. 2006. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology 12:19691976.
  • Messerli, B., D. Viviroli, and R. Weingartner. 2004. Mountains of the world: vulnerable water towers for the 21st century. Ambio 13:2934.
  • Milliman, J. D., K. L. Farnsworth, P. D. Jones, K. H. Xu, and L. C. Smith. 2008. Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951–2000. Global and planetary change 62:187194.
  • Mirza, M. 2007. Climate change, adaptation and adaptative governance in [the] water sector in South Asia. Adaptation and Impacts Research Division (AIRD), Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Scarborough , Ontario .
  • Mutke, J., and W. Barthlott. 2005. Patterns of vascular plant diversity at continental to global scales. Biologiske Skrifter 55:521531.
  • Ni, J. 2003. A simulation of biomes on the Tibetan Plateau and their responses to global climate change. Mountain Research and Development 20:8089.
  • Ni, S. X., J. C. Wang, J. J. Jiang, and Y. Zha. 2007. Rangeland grasshoppers in relation to soils in the Qinghai Lake Region, China. Pedosphere 17:8489.
  • Nijssen, B., G. M. O'Donnell, A. Hamlet, and D. P. Letternmaier. 2001. Hydrological sensitivity of global rivers to climate change. Climate Change 50:143175.
  • Nogues-Bravo, D., M. B. Araujo, M. P. Errea, and J. P. Martinez-Rica. 2007. Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st century. Global Environmental Change 17:420428.
  • Owen, L. A., R. C. Finkel, and M. W. Caffee. 2002. A note on the extent of glaciation throughout the Himalaya during the global last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 21:147157.
  • Pandit, M., et al. 2007. Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:153163.
  • Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:637669.
  • Pfeffer, W., et al. 2008. Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science 321:13401343.
  • Qiu, G. W., Y. X. Hao, and S. L. Wang. 2001. The impacts of climate change on the interlock area of farming—pastoral region and its climatic potential productivity in Northern China. Arid Zone Research 18:2328.
  • Qiu, J. 2008. The third pole. Nature 454:393396.
  • Rees, G. H., and D. N. Collins. 2006. Regional differences in response of flow in glacier-fed Himalayan rivers to climate warming. Hydrological Processes 20:21572167.
  • Ren, J. W., D. H. Qin, S. C. Kang, S. G. Hou, J. C. Pu, and Z. F. Jing. 2004. Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas. Chinese Science Bulletin 49:6569.
  • Ribot, J., A. Agrawal, and A. Larson. 2006. Recentralizing while decentralizing: how national governments reappropriate forest resources. World Development 34:18641886.
  • Rupa, K. K., A. K. Sahai, K. K. Krishna, S. K. Patwardhan, P. K. Mishra, J. V. Revadkar, K. Kamala, and G. B. Pant. 2006. High resolution climate change scenario for India for the 21st century. Current Science 90:334345.
  • Salick, J., D. Anderson, J. Woo, R. Sherman, C. Norbu, A. Na, and S. Dorje. 2004. Tibetan ethnobotany and gradient analyses, Menri (Medicine Mountains), eastern Himalayas. Millenium ecosystem assessment. Available from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/bridging/papers/salick.jan.pdf (accessed February 2009).
  • Salick, J., A. Byg, A. Amend, B. Gunn, W. Law, and H. Schmidt. 2006. Tibetan medicine plurality. Economic Botany 60:227253.
  • Salick, J., Z. D. Fang, and A. Byg. 2009. Tibetan ethnobotany and climate change in the eastern Himalayas. Global Environmental Change: in press.
  • Sarkar, S. 2007. An open access database for Himalayan environmental management. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 4:78.
  • Schickhoff, U. 2005. The upper timberline in the Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum: a review of geographical and ecological aspects. Pages 275354 in G.Broll and B.Keplin, editors. Mountain ecosystems: studies in treeline ecology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin .
  • Shrestha, A. B., C. P. Wake, P. A. Mayewski, and J. E. Dibb. 1999. Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the Period 1971–94. Journal of Climate 12:27752787.
  • Shrestha, A. B., C. P. Wake, J. E. Dibb, and P. A. Mayyewski. 2000. Precipitation fluctuations in the Nepal Himalaya and its vicinity and relationship with some large-scale climatology parameters. International Journal of Climatology 20:317327.
  • Singh, P., and L. Bengtsson. 2004. Hydrological sensitivity of a large Himalayan basin to climate change. Hydrological Processes 18:23632385.
  • Singh, P., V. Kumar, T. Thomas, and M. Arora. 2008. Changes in rainfall and relative humidity in river basins in northwest and central India. Hydrological Processes 22:29822992.
  • Smit, B., and O. Pilifosova. 2001. Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. Page 876912 in J. J.McCarthy, O. F.Canziani, N. A.Leary, D. J.Dokken, and K. S.White, editors. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, New York .
  • Solomon, S., et al. 2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:17041709.
  • Song, M., C. Zhou, and H. Ouyang. 2004. Distributions of dominant tree species on the Tibetan Plateau under current and future climate scenarios. Mountain Research and Development 24:166173.
  • Su, B. D., B. Xiao, D. M. Zhu, and T. Jiang. 2005. Trends in frequency of precipitation extremes in the Yangtze River basin, China: 1960–2003. Hydrological Sciences-Journal 50:479492.
  • Todd, M. C., R. Washington, R. A. Cheke, and D. Kniveton. 2002. Brown locust outbreaks and climate variability in southern Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 39:3142.
  • Walker, M., et al. 2006. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:13421346.
  • Wang, G. X., J. Qian, G. D. Cheng, and Y. M. Lai. 2002. Soil organic carbon pool of grassland soils on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its global implication. Science of the Total Environment 291:207217.
  • Wang, X., Z. C. Xie, Q. H. Feng, Y. L. Yang, M. Q. Yang, and J. Lin. 2005. Response of glaciers to climate change in the source region of the Yangtze River. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 27:498502.
  • Wilkes, A. 2008. Towards mainstreaming climate change in grassland management: policies and practices on the Tibetan Plateau. Working paper no. 67. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi .
  • Williams, J., S. Jackson, and J. Kutzbach. 2007. Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:57385742.
  • Winiger, M., M. Gumpert, and H. Yamout. 2005. Karakoram-Hindu Kush-Western Himalaya: assessing high-altitude water resources. Hydrological Processes 19:23292338.
  • Wu, Z. Y., S. Hang, Z. K. Zhou, P. Hua, and D. Z. Li. 2007. Origin and differentiation of endemism in the flora of China. Frontiers of Biology in China 2:125143.
  • Xu, J. C. 2008. The highlands: a shared water tower in a changing climate and changing Asia. Working paper no. 64. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi .
  • Xu, J. C., and G. M. Rana. 2005. Living in the mountains. Page 196199 in T.Jeggle, editor. Know risk. U. N. Inter-agency Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva .
  • Xu, J. C., and A. Wilkes. 2004. Biodiversity impact analysis in northwest Yunnan, Southwest China. Biodiversity and Conservation 13:959983.
  • Xu, J. C., A. B. Shrestha, R. Vaidya, M. Eriksson, and K. Hewitt. 2007. The melting Himalayas: regional challenges and local impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems and livelihoods. Technical paper. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu , Nepal .
  • Xu, J. C., Y. Yang, Z. Q. Li, N. Tashi, R. Sharma, and J. Fang. 2008. Understanding land use, livelihoods, and health transitions among Tibetan Nomads: a case from Gangga Township, Dingri County, Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. EcoHealth 5:104114.
  • Xu, J. X. 2005. The water fluxes of the Yellow River to the sea in the past 50 years in response to climate change and human activities. Environmental Management 35:620631.
  • Xu, Z. X., Y. N. Chen, and J. Y. Li. 2004. Impacts of climate change on water resources in the Tarim River basin. Water Resources Management 18:439458.
  • Xu, Z., T. Gong, and C. Liu. 2007. Decadal trends of climate in the Tibetan Plateau – regional temperature and precipitation. Hydrological Processes 22:30563065.
  • Ye, Q., and T. D. Yao. 2008. Glacier and lake variations in some regions on Tibetan Plateau using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Geophysical research abstracts. Volume 10. (EGU2008-A-01760, 2008. SRef-ID:1607–792/gra/EGU2008-A-01760). Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau , Germany .
  • Yao, T., Y. Wang, S. Liu, J. Pu, and Y. Shen. 2004. Recent glacial retreat in high Asia in China and its impact on water resource in northwest China. Science in China Series D Earth Sciences 47:10651075.
  • Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global Climate 65 ma to present. Science 292:686693.
  • Zemp, M., et al. 2008. Global glacial changes: facts and figures. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich , Switzerland .
  • Zhang, Q., C. Y. Xu, S. Becker, and T. Jiang. 2006. Sediment and runoff changes in the Yangtze River basin during past 50 years. Journal of Hydrology 331:511523.
  • Zhou, H. K., X. Q. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, S. Gu, and L. Zhou. 2005. Alpine grassland degradation and its control in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. Grassland Science 51:191203.