ABSTRACT: In a sample of 23 couples, those whose infants were delivered by cesarean section with the father present described more positive feelings, greater involvement in decisions related to labor and delivery, and less delay in handling their baby than did couples in which the father was not present during the surgery. Parent-infant behaviors observed in the home at 3 months postpartum were not significantly differentiated by father's presence or absence at birth, except for more intense positive affect toward the infant by fathers who were not present at the cesarean.