Nearly 23 percent of the 13,000 labors randomized to electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) or to auscultation in the 1985 Dublin Trial were high risk by U.S. criteria due to the use of oxytocin. EFM was associated with increased cesarean sections and forceps deliveries, but the neonatal outcomes were exactly the same except for seizure rates. The difference in number of seizures was seen only among those who received oxytocin. In approximately 10,000 labors where no oxytocin was used, there were eight seizures in EFM and eight in auscultated infants.