In the Dublin trial a hypothesis tested (and sustained) was that electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) reduces the risk of neonatal seizures. Only secondary analyses of the data suggest that this benefit was concentrated in labors of more than 5 hours and those in which oxytocin was used. Claims that EFM is only protective under these conditions, and claims of superior methods of monitoring the fetus or interpreting fetal heart rates tracings, must themselves be tested in formal clinical experiments.