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ABSTRACT: Widespread recognition of the immunologic value of human milk has left untouched an equally widespread belief in the nutritional adequacy of infant formula and its equivalence to human milk. Thus many believe that while “breast is best” in conditions of poor sanitation, there is little difference between formula and human milk where good hygiene is possible. Many also believe that women must be free to choose breast or bottle feeding, and that any critique of formula (though not of breastfeeding) is an intrusion upon that choice. But to be free, choice must be informed. This paper looks at the claims of nutritional adequacy and equivalence and argues that infant formula is unable to be “humanized”; that it is intrinsically hazardous; and that damage to Western children has occurred and is probably still occurring on a frightening scale. Once the risks of formula feeding are exposed, social and political change becomes necessary.