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ABSTRACT: This case-control investigation examined the relationship between absence of specific educational content during prenatal care and risk of adverse birth outcomes. A total of 1484 women from three regions with high rates of low birthweight and infant mortality participated in structured postpartum interviews. Analyses were performed for both the full sample and three regional subsamples. For the full sample an adjusted risk ratio of 2.87 (95% CI = 1.75, 4.71) was noted between risk of preterm low birthweight and lack of advice to call the health provider if preterm labor were suspected. For one subsample an adjusted risk ratio of 2.50 (95% CI = 1.11, 5.60) was noted between the risk of preterm low birthweight and lack of education on the signs and symptoms of preterm labor. This study reinforces a body of literature that stresses the importance of appropriate prenatal care in preventing preterm low birthweight. It further suggests that adequacy measures of prenatal care should reflect quality and content as well as timing and number of prenatal visits.