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ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression affects 10 to 15 percent of all mothers. A study of 725 obstetric nurses and 204 obstetricians was conducted using a reliable two-factor scale to measure their knowledge and awareness of postpartum depression. Nurses were more aware than physicians of the emotional impact of postpartum depression. Nurses who demonstrated more empathy and who believed education of postpartum depression does not increase a mother's risk were more aware of the postpartum phenomenon than nurses who were less empathic and who did not hold the same belief. Younger and women physicians recognized the psychosocial antecedents to postpartum depression to a greater degree than did older and men physicians. These findings offer potential use in the training of perinatal health care professionals and in the education of pregnant women about postpartum depression.