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Breastfeeding Rates and Hospital Breastfeeding Practices in Canada: A National Survey of Women

Authors

  • Beverley Chalmers DSc(Med), PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Beverley Chalmers is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and an Affiliate Investigator at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario;
      Beverley Chalmers, DSc(Med), PhD, P.O. Box 21091, RPO Princess, Kingston, Ontario, K7L5P5 Canada
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  • Cheryl Levitt MBBCh, CCFP, FCFP,

    1. Cheryl Levitt is a Professor in the Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario;
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  • Maureen Heaman RN, PhD,

    1. Maureen Heaman is an Associate Professor and CIHR Chair in Gender and Health, Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba;
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  • Beverley O'Brien RM, DNSc,

    1. Beverley O'Brien is a Professor in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta;
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  • Reg Sauve MD, MPH, FRCPC,

    1. Reg Sauve is a Professor in the Department of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta; and
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  • Janusz Kaczorowski PhD,

    1. Janusz Kaczorowski is a Professor and Research Director of the Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
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  • for the Maternity Experiences Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System, Public Health Agency of Canada

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    • *

      All authors are members of the Maternity Experiences Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System, Public Health Agency of Canada (www.publichealth.gc.ca/mes)


  • Janusz Kazorowski is supported as a Senior Scholar by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, Vancouver, British Columbia.

  • Maureen Heaman is supported as a Chair in Gender and Health by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canada.

Beverley Chalmers, DSc(Med), PhD, P.O. Box 21091, RPO Princess, Kingston, Ontario, K7L5P5 Canada

ABSTRACT:

Background:The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in 1989 to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding worldwide. The objective of this study was to report breastfeeding rates and adherence to the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative of the World Health Organization and UNICEF in Canada, as reported by participants in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System.Methods:Eligible women (n = 8,244) were identified from a randomly selected sample of infants born 3 months before the May 2006 Canadian Census, and stratified by province or territory. Birth mothers living with their infants at the time of interview were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone interview conducted by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took approximately 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (between 9 and 14 months in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78% response rate). Nineteen of 309 questions concerned early mother-infant contact and breastfeeding practices.Results:Breastfeeding intention (90.0%) and initiation (90.3%) rates were high, although exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months after birth (14.4%) were lower than desirable. The findings suggested a low adherence to several best practices advocated by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.Conclusion:Although breastfeeding initiation rates were relatively high in Canada, exclusive breastfeeding duration fell short of globally recommended standards.

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