Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in New Mothers: Results from a Two-Stage U.S. National Survey
Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011
© 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 38, Issue 3, pages 216–227, September 2011
How to Cite
Beck, C. T., Gable, R. K., Sakala, C. and Declercq, E. R. (2011), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in New Mothers: Results from a Two-Stage U.S. National Survey. Birth, 38: 216–227. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2011.00475.x
- Issue published online: 1 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011
- Accepted September 15, 2010
- birth trauma;
- postpartum depression;
- posttraumatic stress disorder;
- traumatic childbirth
Abstract: Background: Prevalence rates of women in community samples who screened positive for meeting the DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth range from 1.7 to 9 percent. A positive screen indicates a high likelihood of this postpartum anxiety disorder. The objective of this analysis was to examine the results that focus on the posttraumatic stress disorder data obtained from a two-stage United States national survey conducted by Childbirth Connection: Listening to Mothers II (LTM II) and Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey (LTM II/PP).
Methods: In the LTM II study, 1,373 women completed the survey online, and 200 mothers were interviewed by telephone. The same mothers were recontacted and asked to complete a second questionnaire 6 months later and of those, 859 women completed the online survey and 44 a telephone interview. Data obtained from three instruments are reported in this article: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale-Self Report (PSS-SR), Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2).
Results: Nine percent of the sample screened positive for meeting the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth as determined by responses on the PSS-SR. A total of 18 percent of women scored above the cutoff score on the PSS-SR, which indicated that they were experiencing elevated levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. The following variables were significantly related to elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms levels: low partner support, elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, more physical problems since birth, and less health-promoting behaviors. In addition, eight variables significantly differentiated women who had elevated posttraumatic stress symptom levels from those who did not: no private health insurance, unplanned pregnancy, pressure to have an induction and epidural analgesia, planned cesarean birth, not breastfeeding as long as wanted, not exclusively breastfeeding at 1 month, and consulting with a clinician about mental well-being since birth. A stepwise multiple regression revealed that two predictor variables significantly explained 55 percent of the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom scores: depressive symptom scores on the PHQ-2 and total number of physical symptoms women were experiencing at the time they completed the LTM II/PP survey.
Conclusion: In this two-stage national survey the high percentage of mothers who screened positive for meeting all the DSM-IV criteria for a posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis is a sobering statistic. (BIRTH 38:3 September 2011)