Background: Recent evidence showed that Lactobacilli could exert an inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and in vivo models. To systematically evaluate whether adding Lactobacilli to H. pylori eradication regimens could improve eradication rates and reduce side effects during anti-H. pylori treatment.
Materials and Methods: Eligible articles were identified by searches of electronic databases. We included all randomized trials comparing Lactobacilli supplementation to placebo or no treatment during anti-H. pylori regimens. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0.10. Subanalysis analysis was also performed.
Results: We identified eight randomized trials (n = 1372). Pooled H. pylori eradication rates were 82.26% (95% CI = 78.01–86.51%) and 76.97% (95% CI = 73.11–80.83%) for patients with or without Lactobacilli by intention-to-treat analysis, respectively, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.78 (95% CI = 1.21–2.62). The occurrence of total side effects had no significant difference and were 30.84% (95% CI = 24.82–36.86%) and 42.24% (95% CI = 35.89%–48.59%) for two groups, the summary OR was 0.49 (95% CI = 0.24–1.02); However, Lactobacilli supplementation group had lower occurrence of diarrhoea, bloating and taste disturbance.
Conclusions: Our review suggests that supplementation with Lactobacilli could be effective in increasing eradication rates of anti-H. pylori therapy for first-treated patients. Furthermore, Lactobacilli showed a positive impact on some H. pylori therapy-related side effects.