• Helicobacter pylori;
  • anemia;
  • iron deficiency;
  • school-age;
  • infancy


Background:  The relationship between H. pylori infection and anemia in childhood is still unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between H. pylori infection and anemia or iron deficiency in school-age children and in infants.

Materials and Methods:  Six- to 9- year-old Israeli Arab children (N = 202) and infants (N = 197) were examined for hemoglobin and ferritin levels. ELISA was used to detect H. pylori antigens in stool specimens collected from the participants. Household characteristics were obtained through personal interviews with the mothers.

Results:  The prevalence of anemia was 15.5 versus 5.5% in H. pylori-positive and -negative school-age children, respectively and 34.5 versus 29.8% in H. pylori-positive and -negative infants, respectively. The Mantel–Haenszel age-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.6 (95%CI 1.0, 2.6). In multivariate analysis controlling for socioeconomic variables, H. pylori infection was associated with 2.8 higher prevalence of anemia only in school-age children: adjusted PR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9, 9.3). The adjusted mean difference in hemoglobin levels between H. pylori infected school-age children and uninfected ones was −0.372 gr/dL (95% CI −0.704, −0.039) (p = .04). The respective mean ferritin difference was −6.74 μg/L (95% CI −13.38, −.011) (p = .04). Such differences were not found in infants.

Conclusions: H. pylori infection is associated with higher prevalence of anemia in school-age children independently of socioeconomic variables. Such association was not observed in infants. These findings are of clinical and public health importance.