• 1
    Hjelmgren J, Berggren F, Andersson F. Health economic guidelines—similarities, differences and some implications. Value Health 2001;4: 22550.
  • 2
    Sullivan S, Lyles A, Luce B, Grigar J. AMCP guidance for submission of clinical and economic evaluation data to support formulary listing in US health plans and pharmacy benefits management organisations. J Manag Care Pharm 2001;7: 27282.
  • 3
    Claxton K, Sculpher M, Drummond M. A rational framework for decision making by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Lancet 2002;360: 71115.
  • 4
    Briggs AH. Handling uncertainty in cost-effectiveness models. Pharmacoeconomics 2000; 17: 479500.
  • 5
    Stinnett A, Mullahy J. Net health benefits: a new framework for the analysis of uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analyses. Med Decis Mak 1998;18 (Suppl.):S6880.
  • 6
    Johannesson M, O'Conor RM. Cost-utility analysis from a societal perspective. Health Policy 1997;39: 24153.
  • 7
    Tsuchiya A, Williams A. Welfare economics and economic evaluation. In: DrummondMF, McGuireAE, eds., Theory and Practice of Economic Evaluation in Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • 8
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Technical Guidance for Manufacturers and Sponsors on Making a Submission to a Technology Appraisal. Available from:[Accessed December 2001].
  • 9
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. London: NICE, 2004.
  • 10
    Claxton K. The irrelevance of inference: a decision-making approach to the stochastic evaluation of health care technologies. J Health Econ 1999;18: 34264.
  • 11
    Pratt J, Raiffa H, Schlaifer R. Statistical Decision Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.
  • 12
    Raiffa H, Schlaifer R. Probability and Statistics for Business Decisions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
  • 13
    Hammitt JK, Cave JAK. Research Planning for Food Safety: a Value of Information Approach. RAND Publication Series. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1991.
  • 14
    Howard RA. Information value theory. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics. SSC-2. 1966.
  • 15
    Thompson KM, Evans JS. The value of improved national exposure information for perchloroethylene (perc): a case study for dry cleaners. Risk Anal 1997;17: 25371.
  • 16
    Claxton K, Posnett J. An economic approach to clinical trial design and research priority-setting. Health Econ 1996;5: 51324.
  • 17
    Claxton K, Thompson KA. Dynamic programming approach to efficient clinical trial design. J Health Econ 2001;20: 43248.
  • 18
    Claxton K, Neuman PJ, Araki SS, Weinstein MC. The value of information: an application to a policy model of Alzheimer's disease. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2001;17: 3855.
  • 19
    Fenwick E, Claxton K, Sculpher M, Briggs A. Improving the efficiency and relevance of health technology assessment: the role of decision analytic modelling. Centre for Health Economics Discussion Paper 179. 2000.
  • 20
    Claxton K. Efficient fourth hurdle regulation: an application of value of information analysis to a sample of health technologies (Abstract). Med Decis Mak 2001;21: 530.
  • 21
    Claxton K, Ginnelly L, Sculpher M, Philips Z, Palmer S. A pilot study on the use of decision theory and value of information analysis as part of the national health service health technology assessment programme. Health Technol Assess 2004; 31: 1132.
  • 22
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. NICE Guidance 22. Guidance on the Use of Orlistat in the Treatment of Obesity in Adults. Available from:[Accessed May 2002]. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2001.
  • 23
    O'Meara S, Reimsma R, Shirram L, et al. Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of orlistat in the management of obesity. Available from:[Accessed May 2002].
  • 24
    Briggs AH. Handling uncertainty in economic evaluation and handling results. In: DrummondMF, McGuireA, eds., Economic Evaluation in Health Care: Merging Theory with Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • 25
    Van Hout BA, Al MJ, Gordon GS, Rutten FFH. Costs, effects and c/e-ratios alongside a clinical trial. Health Econ 1994;3: 30919.
  • 26
    Briggs AH. A Bayesian approach to stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Econ 1999;8: 25762.
  • 27
    Fenwick L, Claxton K, Sculpher M. Representing uncertainty: the role of cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Health Econ 2002;10: 77989.
  • 28
    Fenwick EJ, O'Brien B, Briggs A. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves—facts, fallacies and frequently asked questions. Health Econ 2004;13: 40515.
  • 29
    Felli JC, Hazen GB. Sensitivity analysis and the expected value of perfect information. Med Decis Mak 1998;18: 95109.
  • 30
    Ades AE, Lu G, Claxton K. Expected value of sample information in medical decision modelling. Med Decis Making 2003;24: 20727.
  • 31
    Wilby J, Kainth K, Hawkins N, et al. A rapid and systematic review of the clinical effectiveness, tolerability and cost effectiveness of newer drugs for epilepsy in adults. Health Technol Assess 2005;9: 1172.
  • 32
    Song F, Altman DG, Glenny AM, Deeks J. Validity of indirect comparison for estimating efficacy of competing interventions: empirical evidence from published meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;326: 326475.
  • 33
    Higgins JPT, Whitehead J. Borrowing strength from external trials in meta-analysis. Stat Med 1996;15: 273349.
  • 34
    Hasselblad V. Meta-analysis of multi-treatment studies. Med Decis Mak 1998;18: 3743.
  • 35
    Lumley T. Network meta-analysis for indirect treatment comparisons. Stat Med 2002;21: 231324.
  • 36
    Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD. Is the relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? Findings from 356,222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). JAMA 1986;256: 28238.
  • 37
    Kannel WB. The Framlingon study: its 50-year legacy and future promise. J Atheroscler Thromb 2000;6: 606.
  • 38
    Grieve R, Hutton J, Green C. Selecting methods for the prediction of future events in cost-effectiveness models: a decision-framework and example from the cardiovascular field. Health Policy 2003;64: 31124.
  • 39
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994;344: 13839.
  • 40
    Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. N Eng J Med 1995; 333: 13017.
  • 41
    Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF heart protection study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360: 722.
  • 42
    Johannesson M, Jönsson B, Kjekshus J, et al. Cost effectiveness of simvastatin treatment to lower cholesterol levels in patients with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1997;336: 3326.
  • 43
    Caro J, Klittich W, McGuire A, Ford I. The West of Scotland coronary prevention study: economic benefit analysis of primary prevention with pravastatin. BMJ 1997;315: 157782.
  • 44
    Pedersen TR, Olsson AG, Faergeman O, et al. Lipoprotein changes and reduction in the incidence of major coronary heart disease events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Circulation 1998;97: 145360.
  • 45
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the Use of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for Arrhythmias. Available from:[Accessed May 2002]. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2000.
  • 46
    Schulman KA, Lynn LA, Glick HA, Eisenberg JM. Cost effectiveness of low-dose zidovudine therapy for asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med 1991;114: 798802.
  • 47
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guide to Technology Appraisal Process. London: NICE, 2004.
  • 48
    Palmer S, Smith PC. Incorporating option values into the economic evaluation of health care technologies. J Health Econ 2000;19: 75566.
  • 49
    Hawkins N, Claxton K. Optimal drug development programmes and efficient licensing and reimbursement rules: the role of value of information analysis (Abstract). Presented at the Society of Medical Decision Making Conference, Chicago, 2003.
  • 50
    Neumann PJ, Claxton K, Weinstein MC. The FDA's regulation of health economic information. Health Aff 2000;19: 12937.