• 1
    Hillner BE, Hollenberg JP, Pauker SG. Postmenopausal estrogens in prevention of osteoporosis. Benefit virtually without risk if cardiovascular effects are considered. Am J Med 1986;80: 111527.
  • 2
    Drummond MF, O'Brien S, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programs (2nd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • 3
    Tosteson ANA, Jonsson B, Grima DT, et al. Challenges for model based economic evaluations of post-menopausal osteoporosis interventions. Osteoporos Int 2001;12: 84957.
  • 4
    Eddy D, Johnston CC, Cummings SR, et al. Osteoporosis: review of the evidence, prevention, diagnosis and treatment and cost-effectiveness analysis. Osteoporos Int 1998;8(Suppl. 4):S780.
  • 5
    Zethraeus N, Sedrine WB, Caulin F, et al. Models for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2002;13: 84157.
  • 6
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. N Engl J Med 1995;332: 76773.
  • 7
    Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, et al. Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study. Lancet 1996;348: 1459.
  • 8
    Klotzbuecher CM, Ross PD, Landsman PB, et al. Patients with prior fractures have an increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15: 7217.
  • 9
    Espallargues M, Sampietro-Colom L, Estrada MD, et al. Identifying bone-mass related risk factors for fracture to guide bone densitometry measurements: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos Int 2001;12: 81122.
  • 10
    Kanis J, Johnell O, Oden A, et al. Risk of hip fracture derived from relative risks: an analysis applied to the population of Sweden. Osteoporos Int 2000;11: 1207.
  • 11
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC, et al. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older US women from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10: 796802.
  • 12
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
  • 13
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Melton LJ. Appendicular bone mineral and a women's lifetime risk of hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 1992;7: 63946.
  • 14
    Bacon WE, Maggi S, Looker A, et al. International comparison of hip fracture rates in 1988–1989. Osteoporos Int 1996;6: 6975.
  • 15
    Woodhouse A, Black DM. BMD at various sites for the prediction of hip fracture: a meta-analysis. Abstract presented at the 2000 meeting of the ASBMR. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15(Suppl. 1):S145.
  • 16
    Kanis JA, Brazier JE, Stevenson M, et al. Treatment of established osteoporosis: a systematic review and cost-utility analysis. Health Technol Assess 2002;6: 1146.