A Checklist for Medication Compliance and Persistence Studies Using Retrospective Databases


  • Writing for the Analytic Methods Working Group, Medication Compliance and Persistence Special Interest Group, and International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

  • Analytic Methods Working Group: Josh Benner, PharmD, ScD, Joyce A. Cramer, BS, Femida Gwadry-Sridhar, PhD, David Nau, PhD, Michael Nichol, PhD, Andrew M. Peterson, PharmD, Saurabh Ray, PhD, and Anuja Roy, MBA, MSc.

Andrew M. Peterson, Department of Pharmacy Practice/Pharmacy Administration, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, 600 South 43rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. E-mail: a.peters@usip.edu


The increasing number of retrospective database studies related to medication compliance and persistence (C&P), and the inherent variability within each, has created a need for improvement in the quality and consistency of medication C&P research. This article stems from the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) efforts to develop a checklist of items that should be either included, or at least considered, when a retrospective database analysis of medication compliance or persistence is undertaken. This consensus document outlines a systematic approach to designing or reviewing retrospective database studies of medication C&P. Included in this article are discussions on data sources, measures of C&P, results reporting, and even conflict of interests. If followed, this checklist should improve the consistency and quality of C&P analyses, which in turn will help providers and payers understand the impact of C&P on health outcomes.