• 1
    Unger RH, Foster DW. Diabetes mellitus. In: WilsonJD, FosterDW, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1998.
  • 2
    Kretowski A, Kowalska I, Peczynska J, et al. The large increase in incidence of type I diabetes mellitus in Poland. Diabetologia 2001;44(Suppl. 3):B4850.
  • 3
    Amos AF, McCarty DI, Zimmet P. The rising global burden and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997;14(Suppl.):S785.
  • 4
    Zhang P, Engelgau MM, Norris SL, et al. Application of economic analysis to diabetes and diabetes care. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:9727.
  • 5
    Ettaro L, Songer TJ, Zhang P, et al. Cost-of-illness studies in diabetes mellitus. Pharmacoeconomics 2004;22:14964.
  • 6
    Zhou H, Isaman DJ, Messinger S, et al. A computer simulation model of diabetes progression, quality of life, and cost. Diabetes Care 2005;28:285663.
  • 7
    Ray JA, Valentine WJ, Secnik K, et al. Review of the cost of diabetes complications in Australia, Canada,France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Curr Med Res Opin 2005;21:161729.
  • 8
    Grover S, Avasthi A, Bhansali A, et al. Cost of ambulatory care of diabetes mellitus: a study from north India. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:3915.
  • 9
    Chodick G, Heymann AD, Wood F, et al. The direct medical cost of diabetes in Israel. Eur J Health Econ 2005;6:16671.
  • 10
    Arredondo A, Zuniga A. Economic consequences of epidemiological changes in diabetes in middle-income countries: the Mexican case. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1049.
  • 11
    Ricordeau P, Weill A, Vallier N, et al. The prevalence and cost of diabetes in metropolitan France: what trends between 1998 and 2000? Diabetes Metab 2003;29:497504.
  • 12
    The Thai Working Group on Burden Attributable to Risk Factors MoPH. Thailand's Risk Burden in 1999. Bangkok: Bureau of Health Policy and Planning, Ministry of Public Health, 2004.
  • 13
    PorapakkhamY, PunyaratabandhuP, eds. The Report of Thailand Population Health Examination Survey III 2003–2004 (in Thai language). Bangkok: Health System Research Institute, 2006.
  • 14
    Putsook P. Financial Expenditure of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus [Master of Sciences in Epidemiology]. Bangkok: Mahidol University, 1999.
  • 15
    Moolasarn S, Sripa S, Kuessirikiet V, et al. Usage of and cost of complementary/alternative medicine in diabetic patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2005;88:16307.
  • 16
    Kobelt G. Health Economics: An Introduction to Economic Evaluation (2nd ed.). London: Office of Health Economics, 2002.
  • 17
    Sridama V. Diabetes Care (in Thai language). Bangkok: Unity Publication, 2000.
  • 18
    Drummond MF, O'Brien BJ, Stoddart GL, et al. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford Medical Publication, 1997.
  • 19
    Rigden MS. Health Service Financial and Accounting. London: Heinemann, 1983.
  • 20
    Shepard DS, Hodgkin D, Anthony YE. Analysis of Hospital Costs: A Manual for Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
  • 21
    Riewpaiboon A. Institutional Cost Analysis. Bangkok: Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 2003.
  • 22
    Kumaranayake L. The real and the nominal? Making inflationary adjustments to cost and other economic data. Health Policy Plan 2000;15:2304.
  • 23
    Edejer TT-T, Baltussen R, Adam T, et al. Making Choices in Health: WHO, Guide to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.
  • 24
    Creese A, Parker D. Cost Analysis in Primary Health Care: A Training Manual for Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
  • 25
    Disyathikom K, Pacharanarumol W, Tangcharoensathien V. A Manual of District Hospital Cost Analysis (in Thai language). Bangkok: International Health Policy Planning, 2001.
  • 26
    Lerner WM, Wellman WL, Burik D. Pricing hospital unit of service using micro-costing techniques. Hosp Health Serv Adm 1985;(January/February):728.
  • 27
    Suver JD, Cooper JC. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems. Am J Hosp Pharm 1988;45:14652.
  • 28
    Kumaranayake L, Pepperall J, Goodman H, et al. Costing Guidelines for HIV Prevention Strategies. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2000.
  • 29
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989.
  • 30
    Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, et al. Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003.
  • 31
    Agro KE. Sensitivity analysis in health economic and pharmacoeconomic studies: an appraisal of the literature. Pharmacoecon 1997;11:7588.
  • 32
    Briggs A, Sculpher M, Buxton M. Uncertainty in the economic evaluation of health care technologies: the role of sensitivity analysis. Healthecon 1994;3:95401.
  • 33
    Briggs A, Sculpher M. Sensitivity analysis in economic evaluation: a review of published studies. Healthecon 1995;4:35571.
  • 34
    Afifi AA, Clark V. Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis. London: Chapman & Hall, 1996.
  • 35
    Duan N. Smearing estimator: a nonparametric retransformation method. J Am Statl Assoc 1983;78:60510.
  • 36
    Smith M, Barnett P. What is retransformation bias, and how can it be corrected? Available from:[Accessed August 5, 2005].
  • 37
    Gencarelli DM. One pill, many prices: variation in prescription drug prices in selected government programs. NHPF Issue Brief 2005;807:120.
  • 38
    Garattini L, Tediosi F, Chiaffarino F, et al. The outpatient cost of diabetes care in Italian diabetes centers. Value Health 2001;4:2517.
  • 39
    Palmer AJ, Roze S, Valentine WJ, et al. The CORE Diabetes Model: projecting long-term clinical outcomes, costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions in diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) to support clinical and reimbursement decision-making. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20(Suppl. 1):S526.
  • 40
    O'Brien JA, Patrick AR, Caro JJ. Cost of managing complications resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canada. BMC Health Serv Res 2003;3:7.
  • 41
    Morsanutto A, Berto P, Lopatriello S, et al. Major diabetes complications have an impact on total annual medical cost of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:18412.
  • 42
    Norlund A, Apelqvist J, Bitzen PO, et al. Cost of illness of adult diabetes mellitus underestimated if comorbidity is not considered. J Intern Med 2001;250:5765.
  • 43
    Shobhana R, Rao PR, Lavanya A, et al. Cost burden to diabetic patients with foot complications—a study from southern India. J Assoc Physicians India 2000;48:114750.
  • 44
    Shobhana R, Rao PR, Lavanya A, et al. Foot care economics—cost burden to diabetic patients with foot complications: a study from southern India. J Assoc Physicians India 2001;49:5303.
  • 45
    Suastika K. Diabetic foot: a major medical, social and economic problem in patients with diabetes. Acta Med Indones 2005;37:1856.
  • 46
    Saar WE, Lee TH, Berlet GC. The economic burden of diabetic foot and ankle disorders. Foot Ankle Int 2005;26:2731.
  • 47
    Smith D, Cullen MJ, Nolan JJ. The cost of managing diabetic foot ulceration in an Irish hospital. Ir J Med Sci 2004;173:8992.
  • 48
    Ragnarson Tennvall G, Apelqvist J. Health-economic consequences of diabetic foot lesions. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(Suppl. 2):S1329.
  • 49
    Girod I, Valensi P, Laforet C, et al. An economic evaluation of the cost of diabetic foot ulcers: results of a retrospective study on 239 patients. Diabetes Metab 2003;29:26977.
  • 50
    Yach D, Stuckler D, Brownell KD. Epidemiologic and economic consequences of the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Nat Med 2006;12:626.
  • 51
    Brown JB. The progressive cost of complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:187380.
  • 52
    Kongsawatt S. Unit Cost of Patient Service 1999, in 5 Provinces under Health Care Reform Project (in Thai language). Bangkok: Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Bureau of Health Policy and Planning, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Health, 1999.
  • 53
    Upakdee N, Pannarunothai S. Medical charges for outpatients: a case study in three provinces using health insurance data (in Thai language). J Health Sci 2003;12:77587.