Prospective Validation of Eight Different Adherence Measures for Use with Administrative Claims Data among Patients with Schizophrenia


Bradley C. Martin, Division of Pharmaceutical Evaluation and Policy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham Street, Slot 522, Little Rock, AR 72205-7122, USA. E-mail:


Objective:  The aim of this study was to compare the predictive validity of eight different adherence measures by studying the variability explained between each measure and hospitalization episodes among Medicaid-eligible persons diagnosed with schizophrenia on antipsychotic monotherapy.

Methods:  This study was a retrospective analysis of the Arkansas Medicaid administrative claims data. Continuously eligible adult schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM = 295.**) patients on antipsychotic monotherapy were identified in the recruitment period from July 2000 through April 2004. Adherence rates to antipsychotic therapy in year 1 were calculated using eight different measures identified from the literature. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to prospectively predict all-cause and mental health-related hospitalizations in the follow-up year.

Results:  Adherence rates were computed for 3395 schizophrenic patients with a mean age of 42.9 years, of which 52.5% (n = 1782) were females, and 52.8% (n = 1793) were white. The proportion of days covered (PDC) and continuous measure of medication gaps measures of adherence had equal C-statistics of 0.571 in predicting both all-cause and mental health-related hospitalizations. The medication possession ratio (MPR) continuous multiple interval measure of oversupply were the second best measures with equal C-statistics of 0.568 and 0.567 for any-cause and mental health-related hospitalizations. The multivariate adjusted models had higher C-statistics but provided the same rank order results.

Conclusions:  MPR and PDC were among the best predictors of any-cause and mental health-related hospitalization, and are recommended as the preferred adherence measures when a single measure is sought for use with administrative claims data for patients not on polypharmacy.