General Population Reference Values for the French Version of the EuroQol EQ-5D Health Utility Instrument
Article first published online: 15 APR 2010
© 2010, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR)
Value in Health
Volume 13, Issue 5, pages 631–635, August 2010
How to Cite
Perneger, T. V., Combescure, C. and Courvoisier, D. S. (2010), General Population Reference Values for the French Version of the EuroQol EQ-5D Health Utility Instrument. Value in Health, 13: 631–635. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2010.00727.x
- Issue published online: 5 AUG 2010
- Article first published online: 15 APR 2010
- health utility;
- population norms
Objective: To provide reference values for the French version of the EQ-5D and verify its capacity to discriminate between subgroups.
Methods: General population mail survey in French-speaking Switzerland that included the EQ-5D instrument (five items rated on three levels as no problem, moderate problem, severe problem, and a visual analog health scale between 0 and 100) and descriptive variables.
Results: Questionnaires were returned by 1956 adults (response rate 52.1%). Three of the five items had important “ceiling” effects (proportions with no problem: mobility 92.1%, self-care 97.6%, usual activities 91.2%), the other two less so (pain/discomfort 54.3%, anxiety/depression 68.1%). Four health states represented the majority of the population: no health problem (41.8%), moderate pain/discomfort only (21.0%), moderate anxiety/depression only (11.5%), moderate pain/discomfort and moderate anxiety/depression only (13.2%). The mean health utility was 0.83 (SD 0.15) on a scale between 0 and 1 and the mean visual analog score 81.7 (SD 15.5); the two were correlated (Pearson r 0.63, P < 0.001). Health utility scores were lower among women, older respondents, those with basic education, users of health services, and those with lower self-reported health status. The pattern was similar for the visual analog score except that women reported slightly higher ratings than men.
Conclusion: The EQ-5D performed as expected in a French-speaking general population sample. Reference values by sex and age group may facilitate the interpretation of results obtained in clinical settings.