• 1
    Briggs AH, Glick H, Lozano-Ortega G, et al. Is treatment with ICS and LABA cost-effective for COPD? Multinational economic analysis of the TORCH study. Eur Respir J 2010;25:5329.
  • 2
    O'Brien BJ. A tale of two (or more) cities: geographic transferability of pharmacoeconomic data. Am J Manag Care 1997;3(Suppl.):S339.
  • 3
    McAlister FA. Commentary: relative treatment effects are consistent across the spectrum of underlying risks . . . usually. Int J Epidemiol 2002;31:767.
  • 4
    Warrillow SJ, Bellomo R, Davey P, Birkmeyer J. Major surgery in Victoria and the United States: a comparison of hospital mortality in older patients. Crit Care Resusc 2008;10:28895.
  • 5
    Weiser TG, Regenbogen SE, Thompson KD, et al. An estimation of the global volume of surgery: a modelling strategy based on available data. Lancet 2008;372:13944.
  • 6
    Glick HA, Polsky D, Willke RJ, et al. Comparison of the use of medical resources and outcomes in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between Canada and the United States. Stroke 1998;29:3518.
  • 7
    Reed SD, Anstrom KJ, Bakhai A, et al. Conducting economic evaluations alongside multinational clinical trials: toward a research consensus. Am Heart J 2005;149:43443.
  • 8
    Willke RJ, Glick HA, Polsky D, Schulman K. Estimating country-specific cost-effectiveness from multinational clinical trials. Health Econ 1998;7:48193.
  • 9
    Cook JR, Drummond M, Glick H, Heyse JF. Assessing the appropriateness of combining economic data from multinational clinical trials. Stat Med 2003;22:195576.
  • 10
    Gail M, Simon R. Testing for qualitative interactions between treatment effects and patient subsets. Biometrics 1985;41:36172.
  • 11
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994;344:13839.
  • 12
    Jonsson B, Johannesson M, Kjekshus J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol lowering. Results from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Eur Heart J 1996;17:10017.
  • 13
    Grieve R, Nixon R, Thompson SG. Bayesian hierarchical models for cost-effectiveness analyses that use data from cluster randomized trials. Med Decis Making 2010;30:16375.
  • 14
    Manca A, Lambert PC, Sculpher M, Rice N. Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from multinational trials: the use of bivariate hierarchical modeling. Med Decis Making 2007;27:47190.
  • 15
    Willan AR, Pinto EM, O'Brien BJ, et al. Country specific cost comparisons from multinational clinical trials using empirical Bayesian shrinkage estimation: the Canadian ASSENT-3 economic analysis. Health Econ 2005;14:32738.
  • 16
    Weinstein MC, Stason WB. Foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis for health and medical practices. N Engl J Med 1977;296:71621.