An Essay on Sexual Frustration as the Cause of Breast Cancer in Women: How Correlations and Cultural Blind Spots Conceal Causal Effects
Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011
© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Breast Journal
Volume 18, Issue 2, pages 168–171, March/April 2012
How to Cite
Stuger, J. (2012), An Essay on Sexual Frustration as the Cause of Breast Cancer in Women: How Correlations and Cultural Blind Spots Conceal Causal Effects. The Breast Journal, 18: 168–171. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01206.x
- Issue published online: 8 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011
- breast cancer;
- cancer causes;
- cancer theory;
- female sexual behavior;
- sexual frustration
Abstract: The main premise of this hypothesis is that breast cancer is caused by sexual frustration. Sexual frustration is triggered by multiple forms of dissonance between the absence or lack of sexual reward and the (un)conscious motivation to obtain these sexual rewards. I assume that neural and hormonal processes are capable of adjusting or distorting biologically active forms of specific sex hormones depending on experienced sexual stimuli. I hypothesize that prolonged sexual frustration will ultimately lead via aberrantly metabolized sex hormones to the development of breast cancer. Human female sexual behavior research links sexual frustration with breast cancer risk. The distinction between human female sexual behavior and reproduction is crucial to understand breast cancer risk. Current explanations are focused on reproduction. However, human female sexual behavior is causal in breast cancer development and androgens rather than estrogens are crucial for sexual behaviors in women. Social learning is the main determinant of human sexual behaviors that is why cultural and social processes are very important to understand breast cancer risk. Epidemiologists should evaluate breast cancer risk based on cultural female attitudes towards sexually related issues. Female mate choices should be examined for (un)conscious cultural, ethnic, religious, and socio-economic pressure to make a thorough assessment of breast cancer risk. Closer examination of (un)conscious female copulation strategies reveal that they are potential sources of sexual frustration in specific groups of women. Postmenopausal women seem vulnerable for self-fulfilling prophecies about post reproductive sexuality, body image, and negative perceptions of menopause which may cause sexual frustrations.