Abstract: First-line surgical options for early stage breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ include breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. We analyzed factors that influence the receipt of mastectomy and resultant trends over time. Registry analysis was carried out for 21,869 women who underwent up-front surgical treatment for stage 0, I or II breast cancer between 1998 and 2007 using data from the Kentucky Cancer Registry. We examined the trend of treatment over time and assessed the probability of receiving mastectomy using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 54.5% of women received breast conservation and 45.5% received mastectomy over a 10-year period (annual BCS rate range: 46.9–61.2%). The overall mastectomy rate substantially decreased from 53.1% in 1998 to 38.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001), but then increased to 45% in 2007 (p < 0.001). Between 2005 and 2007, the increase in mastectomies in the age groups of <50 years, 50–69 years, and ≥70 years was 7.5% (p = 0.0351), 4.9% (p = 0.0132) and, 8.0% (p = 0.0283), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the rate of receiving mastectomy was drastically higher for women with stage I or II (versus in situ) disease and moderate or poorly differentiated (versus well differentiated) histology. The rate was modestly higher for uninsured and government-insured (versus privately insured) patients, patients older than 70 years (versus younger), rural (versus urban) location, receptor negative (versus receptor positive) disease, and unusual histologies (versus ductal and lobular histology). There was no statistically significant difference in surgical choice with regard to race. Determinants of mastectomy for in situ and early stage breast cancer include stage, histology, age, insurance status, county of residence, receptor status. The rate of mastectomy declined until 2005 and is now increasing across all age groups, especially for women < 50 years and ≥70 years.