• research utilization;
  • pain management;
  • research-based standards;
  • outcome evaluation;
  • nursing practice;
  • evidence based;
  • evidence-based practice;
  • research methods


(1) Advances in research are meaningless unless they reach clinicians at the point of care. This article describes a program of research in which a collaborative research utilization (CRU) model was developed and tested in four clinical studies in the context of pain management. The overall aim of the research program was to decrease the long lag time from when research innovations are developed to when they appear in clinicians' day-to-day caregiving activities. In the model, partnerships are formed between researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and clinicians in academic and practice settings. The developmental process, structure, and steps of the model are described as well as outcomes that have been achieved in the student, scientist, clinician, nursing practice, and most importantly, the patient.