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Clinicians tend to focus on diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rather than systolic blood pressure (SBP), to identify and treat hypertension. The authors used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994) Mobile Examination Center to examine the distributions of SBP and DBP in treated and untreated individuals with hypertension. We identified the percentage of the hypertensive population with SBP controlled to <140 mm Hg and the percentage with DBP controlled to <90 mm Hg, stratified by treatment status, gender, race, and ethnicity. Individuals were classified as having hypertension if they had SBP of >140 mm Hg or DBP of >90 mm Hg, or if they were taking medication for hypertension. A weighted analysis was performed to project the results to the entire U.S. population from 1988–1994; these totals were further estimated for the year 2000 by extrapolation. For men, women, whites, African Americans, and Hispanics, SBP control rates were uniformly poorer than DBP control rates. The difference persisted when subgroups were categorized according to treatment status. The disparity in SBP and DBP control rates was especially great for women: only 50% of treated white women with hypertension had SBP control, but 92% had DBP control. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension was greater than 50% among all individuals with hypertension in the 55–60-year age group and increased with age thereafter. A greater emphasis on SBP is needed to improve population blood pressure control.