1. Acknowledgment:
  2. References

This study was funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


  1. Acknowledgment:
  2. References
  • 1
    Sowers JR, Epstein M, Frohlich ED. Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Hypertension. 2001;37: 10531059.
  • 2
    Hillier TA, Pedula KL. Characteristics of an adult population with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the relation of obesity and age of onset. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(9):15221527.
  • 3
    Deedwania PC. Hypertension and diabetes: new therapeutic options. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:15851594.
  • 4
    Grossman E, Messerli FH, Goldbourt U. High blood pressure and diabetes mellitus: are all antihypertensive drugs created equal? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:24472452.
  • 5
    Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, et al. , for the National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:646661.
  • 6
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998;317:703713.
  • 7
    Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al. , for the HOT Study Group. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet. 1998;351:17551762.
  • 8
    American Diabetes association. American Diabetes Association: clinical practice recommendations 2002. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25(suppl 1):S1147.
  • 9
    Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157:24132446.
  • 10
    The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145153.
  • 11
    Chowdhury TA, Kumar S, Barnett AH, et al. Treatment of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes: a review of the recent evidence. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:803811.
  • 12
    Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L. Cardiovascular protection and blood pressure reduction: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2001;358: 13051315.
  • 13
    Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N, for the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet. 2000;356:19551964.
  • 14
    Savage PJ, Pressel SL, Curb JD, et al. Influence of long-term, low-dose, diuretic-based, antihypertensive therapy on glucose, lipid, uric acid, and potassium levels in older men and women with isolated systolic hypertension: the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(7):741751.
  • 15
    Gradman AH, Acevedo C. Evolving strategies for the use of combination therapy in hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2002;4(5):343349.
  • 16
    Elliott WJ. Is fixed combination therapy appropriate for initial hypertension treatment? Curr Hypertens Rep. 2002;4(4):278285.
  • 17
    Freis ED. Controlling high blood pressure: a simple and effective approach. Compr Ther. 2001;27(3):209212.
  • 18
    Hilleman DE, Ryschon KL, Mohiuddin SM, et al. Fixed-dose combination vs. monotherapy in hypertension: a meta-analysis evaluation. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13(7):477483.
  • 19
    Moser M, Black HR. The role of combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1998;11(6 pt 2):73S78S.
  • 20
    Epstein M, Bakris G. Newer approaches to antihypertensive therapy. Use of fixed-dose combination therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(17):19691978.
  • 21
    Muiesan G, Magnani B, Agabiti-Rosei E, et al. Evaluation of the effect of timolol alone and in combination with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension: a double-blind, controlled study. Clin Sci Mol Med Suppl. 1976;3:529s531s.
  • 22
    Kaplan NM. Low-dose combination therapy: the rationalization for an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker in higher risk patients. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:8S11S.
  • 23
    Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G, et al. Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:12071216.
  • 24
    Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, et al. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care. 1993; 16(2):434444.
  • 25
    Bakris GL. A practical approach to achieving recommended blood pressure goals in diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:26612667.
  • 26
    Ambrosioni E. Pharmacoeconomics of hypertension management: the place of combination therapy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2001;19(4):337347.
  • 27
    Weir MR, Rosenberger C, Fink JC. Pilot study to evaluate a water displacement technique to compare effects of diuretics and ACE inhibitors to alleviate lower extremity edema due to dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14(9 pt 1):963968.
  • 28
    Middeke M, Richter WO, Schwandt P, et al. The effects of antihypertensive combination therapy on lipid and glucose metabolism: hydrochlorothiazide plus sotalol vs. hydrochlorothiazide plus captopril. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997;35(6):231234.
  • 29
    Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhager WH, et al. , for the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. Effects of calcium channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic high BP. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:677684.
  • 30
    Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, et al. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with hypertension: the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2. Lancet. 1999;354:17511756.
  • 31
    Weir MR, Chrysant SG, McCarron DA, et al. Influence of race and dietary salt on the antihypertensive efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a calcium channel antagonist in salt-sensitive hypertensives. Hypertension. 1998; 31:10881096.
  • 32
    Psaty BM, Furberg CD, Kuller LH, et al. Association between blood pressure level and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and total mortality: the cardiovascular health study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:11831192.
  • 33
    Kizer JR, Kimmel SE. Epidemiologic review of the calcium channel blocker drugs: an up-to-date perspective on the proposed hazards. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:11451158.
  • 34
    Koshy S, Bakris GL. Therapeutic approaches to achieve desired blood pressure goals: focus on calcium channel blockers. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2000;14:295301.
  • 35
    Bagatin J, Sardelic S, Pivac N, et al. Comparison of chlorthalidone, propranolol and bopindolol in six-month treatment of arterial hypertension. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1998;18(2):7378.
  • 36
    Samuelsson O, Pennert K, Andersson O, et al. Diabetes mellitus and raised serum triglyceride concentration in treated hypertension- are they of prognostic importance? Observational study. BMJ. 1996;313(7058):660663.
  • 37
    Lakshman MR, Reda DJ, Materson BJ, et al. Diuretics and betablockers do not have adverse effects at 1 year on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles in men with hypertension. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(6): 551558.
  • 38
    Weir MR, Moser M. Diuretics and beta-blockers: is there a risk for dyslipidemia? Am Heart J. 2000;139:174183.
  • 39
    Moser M. Lipid abnormalities and diuretics. Am Fam Physician. 1989;40:213220.