• 1
    Saunders E. Tailoring treatment to minority patients. Am J Med. 1990;88(Suppl 3B):21S23S.
  • 2
    American Heart Association. 2002 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Dallas , TX : American Heart Association, 2001.
  • 3
    Jamerson K, De Quattro V. The impact of ethnicity on response in antihypertensive therapy. Am J Med. 1996;101 (suppl 3A):22S32S.
  • 4
    Alexander M, Grumbach K, Remy L, et al. Congestive heart failure hospitalizations and survival in California: patterns according to race/ethnicity. Am Heart J. 1999;137:919927.
  • 5
    Dries DL, Exner DV, Gersh BJ, et al. Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:609616.
  • 6
    Philbin EF, DiSalvo TG. Influence of race and gender on care process, resource use, and hospital-based outcomes in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82:7681.
  • 7
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. Br Med J. 1998;317:703713.
  • 8
    Ceriello A, Sechi LA. Management of cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients: evolution or revolution? Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2002;15:121127.
  • 9
    Clark LT, Ferdinand KC, Flack JM, et al. Coronary heart disease in African Americans. Heart Dis. 2001;3: 97108.
  • 10
    Ferguson JA, Tierney WM, Westmoreland GR, et al. Examination of racial differences in management of cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:17071713.
  • 11
    Ford ES, Cooper RS. Implications of race/ethnicity for health and health care use: racial/ethnic differences in health care utilization of cardiovascular procedures-a review of the evidence. Health Serv Res. 1995;30:237252.
  • 12
    Gillum RF, Gillum BS, Francis CK. Coronary revascularization and cardiac catheterization in the United States: trends in racial differences. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29: 15571562.
  • 13
    Weitzman S, Cooper L, Chambless L, et al. Gender, racial, and geographic differences in the performance of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for hospitalized acute myocardial infarction in four states. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:722726.
  • 14
    Peterson ED, Shaw LK, DeLong ER, et al. Racial variation in the use of coronary revascularization procedures. Are the differences real? Do they matter? N Engl J Med. 1997; 336:480486.
  • 15
    Cooper RS, Simmons B, Castaner A, et al. Survival rates and prehospital delay during myocardial infarction among black persons. Am J Cardiol. 1986;57:208211.
  • 16
    Alderman MH, Ooi WL, Cohen H, et al. Plasma renin activity: a risk factor for myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10:18.
  • 17
    Blumenfeld JD, Sealey JE, Alderman MH, et al. Plasma renin activity in the emergency department and its independent association with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:855863.
  • 18
    Brown NJ, Vaughan DE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Circulation. 1998;97:14111420.
  • 19
    Dzau VJ. Mechanism of protective effects of ACE inhibition on coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 1998;19(Suppl J):J2J6.
  • 20
    Williams B. Angiotensin II and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular remodeling. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87(suppl): 10C17C.
  • 21
    Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Plasma rennin activity and insulin resistance in African American and white children: the Buglusa Heart Study. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:212217.
  • 22
    CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Engl J Med. 1987;316:14291435.
  • 23
    Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Trial. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:669677.
  • 24
    SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:293302.
  • 25
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145153.
  • 26
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and the MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet. 2000;355:253259.
  • 27
    Agodoa LY, Appel L, Bakris GL, et al. Effect of ramipril vs amlodipine on renal outcomes in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285:27192728.
  • 28
    The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Bethesda , MD : National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program; 1997. NIH Publication 98-4080.
  • 29
    Sica DA, Douglas JG. The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK): new findings. J Clin Hypertens. 2001;3:244251.
  • 30
    Svensson P, De Faire U, Sleight P, et al. Comparative effects of ramipril on ambulatory and office blood pressures. A HOPE substudy. Hypertension. 2001;38:e28e32.
  • 31
    Saunders E, Weir MR, Kong BW, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of a beta-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive blacks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:17071713.
  • 32
    Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:914921.
  • 33
    Moser M, Lunn J. Responses to captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in black patients with hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982;32:307312.
  • 34
    Kaplan NM, on behalf of the Clinical Altace Real-World Efficacy (CARE) Investigators. The CARE study: a postmarketing evaluation of ramipril in 11,100 patients. Clin Ther. 1996;18:658670.
  • 35
    Wright JT, Agodoa L, Contreras G, et al. Successful blood pressure control in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:16361643.
  • 36
    Weir MR, Saunders E, for the Trandolapril Multicenter Study Group. Renin status does not predict the anti-hypertensive response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in African-Americans. J Hum Hypertens. 1998;12:189194.
  • 37
    Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:9951003.
  • 38
    Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlof B, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:10041010.
  • 39
    Merck reports additional subgroup analyses from LIFE study with investigational use of Cozaar. Whitehouse Station , NJ : Merck News Release, April 11, 2002.
  • 40
    McKelvie RS, Yusuf S, Pericak D, et al. Comparison of candesartan, enalapril, and their combination in congestive heart failure. Randomized Evaluation of Strategies for Left Ventricular Dysfunction (RESOLVD) pilot study. Circulation. 1999;100:10561064.
  • 41
    Diovan [package insert]. East Hanover , NJ : Novartis Pharmaceutcals Corp; 2002.
  • 42
    Duprez D, De Buyzere M, Rietzschel ER, et al. Aldosterone and vascular damage. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2000;2:327334.
  • 43
    Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:709717.
  • 44
    Inspra [package insert]. Chicago , IL : G.D. Searle; 2002.
  • 45
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(Suppl 1):S33S50.
  • 46
    Lonn EM, Yusuf S, Jha P, et al. Emerging role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiac and vascular protection. Circulation. 1994;90:20562069.