Patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors benefit from having them all controlled, but this rarely occurs. Fifty-seven primary care providers were enrolled in a program to monitor cardiovascular risk factor control. Data were obtained on 7315 hypertensives. This analysis focuses on 3460 high-risk hypertensives including 2199 with diabetes and 1261 with clinical cardiovascular disease. Blood pressures were <140/90 mm Hg and <130/80 mm Hg in only 44.3% and 20.4% of diabetics and 49.6% and 26.6% nondiabetics, respectively, despite the use of an average of 2.7±1.8 anti-hypertensive medications. Among high-risk dyslipidemic hypertensives, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was <100 mg/dL in only 34% of diabetic and 33% of nondiabetic patients. Among 1696 diabetic hypertensives, the most recent glycosylated hemoglobin value averaged 7.5%, with 46.6% less than 7%. Among 805 diabetic, dyslipidemic hypertensives, all three risk factors were controlled to goal in only 6.6% with higher rates in whites than in African Americans (14.8% vs. 1.6%, p<0.001). An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, or both were prescribed in 89.9% of diabetic and 70.8% of nondiabetic patients, p<0.05. Primary care providers use evidence-based combination therapy in high-risk hypertensive patients with and without diabetes. These findings confirm the low rates of multiple risk factor control and highlight challenges of reaching evidence-based goals in primary care.