In elderly patients with systolic hypertension resistant to treatment with conventional therapy, increased aortic pulse wave reflection and a high augmentation index are often present. These findings are indicative of endothelial dysfunction and deficient generation of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator in the arterial tree. In such patients, treatment with the nitric oxide donor extended-release isosorbide mononitrate characteristically produces prompt and sustained falls in both pulse wave reflection and systolic blood pressure. The adjunct use of this nitrate produces useful additional decreases in systolic blood pressure ranging from 10 to 45 mm Hg, often achieving target blood pressure goals in isolated systolic hypertension. By combining this endothelium-independent nitric oxide donor with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, the potential exists to address both the nitric oxide deficiency and endothelial dysfunction of the vascular endothelium in these patients. Other possibilities for synergism with this combination include complementary hemodynamic, circadian, and metabolic actions together with prevention of nitrate tolerance. Isosorbide mononitrate may also be used successfully with calcium channel blockers, β blockers, and diuretics.