• 1
    Weber MA. Introduction: hypertension in the elderly. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2000;9:11.
  • 2
    Franklin SS, Jacobs MJ, Wong ND, et al. Predominance of isolated systolic hypertension among middle-aged and elderly US hypertensives. Analysis based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Hypertension. 2001;37:869874.
  • 3
    Amery A, Birkenhager W, Brixko P, et al. Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly trial. Lancet. 1985;1:13491354.
  • 4
    SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA. 1991;265:32553264.
  • 5
    Dahlof B, Lindholm LH, Hansson L, et al. Morbidity and mortality in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension (STOP-Hypertension). Lancet. 1991;338:12811285.
  • 6
    Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, et al. Randomised, double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Lancet. 1997;350:757764.
  • 7
    Reid CM, Ryan P, Wing LMH. The 2nd Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2). In: BlackHR, ed. Clinical Trials in Hypertension. New York , NY : Marcel Dekker. 2001;587604.
  • 8
    Staessen JA, Gasowski J, Wang JG, et al. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet. 2000;355:865872.
  • 9
    Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Benetos A. Pathophysiology of hypertension in the elderly. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2002;11:3439.
  • 10
    Nichols WW, O'Rourke MF, Avolio AP, et al. Effects of age on ventricular-vascular coupling. Am J Cardiol. 1985;55:11791184.
  • 11
    Stokes GS, Ryan M. Can extended-release isosorbide mononitrate be used as adjunctive therapy for systolic hypertension? An open study employing pulse-wave analysis to determine effects of antihypertensive therapy. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 1997;6:1119.
  • 12
    Wilkinson IB, Hall IR, MacCallum H, et al. Pulse-wave analysis. Clinical evaluation of a non-invasive, widely applicable method for assessing endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:147152.
  • 13
    Cohn JN. Vascular wall function as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. J Hypertens. 1999;17(suppl 5):S41S44.
  • 14
    Avolio AP, Deng FQ, Li WQ, et al. Effects of aging on changing arterial distensibility in populations with high and low prevalence of hypertension: comparison between urban and rural communities. Circulation. 1985;71:202210.
  • 15
    Panza JA, Quyyumi AA, Brush JE, et al. Abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:2227.
  • 16
    Heistad DD, Armstrong ML, Baumbach GL, et al. Sick vessel syndrome. Recovery of atherosclerotic and hypertensive vessels. Hypertension. 1995;26:509513.
  • 17
    Johnstone MT, Creager SJ, Scales KM, et al. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 1993;88:25102516.
  • 18
    McVeigh GE, Morgan DJ, Finkelstein SM, et al. Vascular abnormalities associated with long-term cigarette smoking identified by arterial waveform analysis. Am J Med. 1997;102:227231.
  • 19
    Ip MSM, Lam B, Chan L-Y, et al. Circulating nitric oxide is suppressed in obstructive sleep apnea and is reversed by nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:21662171.
  • 20
    Forte P, Copland M, Smith LM, et al. Basal nitric oxide synthesis in essential hypertension. Lancet. 1997;349:837842.
  • 21
    Lin KY, Ito A, Asagami T, et al. Impaired nitric oxide synthase pathway in diabetes mellitus: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Circulation. 2002;106:987992.
  • 22
    Archer SL, Gragasin FS, Wu X, et al. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in human internal mammary artery is 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and causes relaxation by activating smooth muscle BK (Ca) channels. Circulation. 2003;107:769776.
  • 23
    Busse R, Fleming I. Pulsatile stretch and shear stress: physical stimuli determining the production of endothelium-derived relaxing factors. J Vasc Res. 1998;35:7384.
  • 24
    Macha M, Yamasaki K, Gordon LM, et al. The vasoregulatory role of endothelium derived nitric oxide during pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. ASAIO J. 1996;42: M800M804.
  • 25
    Stokes GS. A dynamic role of NO in the small artery conduits of the systemic circulation. Physiol Res. 2002;51:57P.
  • 26
    Stokes GS, Barin ES, Gilfillan KL. Effects of isosorbide mononitrate and AII inhibition on pulse wave reflection in hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;41:297301.
  • 27
    Staessen JA, O'Brien ET, Atkins N, et al. Short report: ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive compared with hypertensive subjects. J Hypertens. 1993;11:12891297.
  • 28
    Nurnberger J, Keflioglu-Scheiber A, Saez AMO, et al. Augmentation index is associated with cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens. 2002;20:24072414.
  • 29
    The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JAMA. 2003;289:25602572.
  • 30
    Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hyperten. 2003;21:10111053.
  • 31
    Gueyffier F, Bulpitt C, Boissel JP, et al. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup analysis of randomised clinical trials. INDANA Group. Lancet. 1999;353:793796.
  • 32
    Safar ME, London GM. Therapeutic studies and arterial stiffness in hypertension: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2000;18:15271535.
  • 33
    Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on endothelial-dependent vasodilatation in essential hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 1998;16:447456.
  • 34
    Schiffrin EL, Deng Li-Y. Comparison of effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition and beta-blockade for 2 years on function of small arteries from hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1995;25:699703.
  • 35
    Rizzoni D, Muiesan ML, Porteri E, et al. Effects of long-term antihypertensive treatment with lisinopril on resistance arteries in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. J Hypertens. 1997;15:197204.
  • 36
    Safar ME. Antihypertensive effects of nitrates in chronic human hypertension. J Appl Cardiol. 1990;5:6981.
  • 37
    Stokes GS, Ryan M, Brnabic A, et al. A controlled study of the effects of isosorbide mononitrate on arterial blood pressure and pulse wave form in systolic hypertension. J Hypertens. 1999;17:17671773.
  • 38
    Stokes GS, Barin ES, Gilfillan KL, et al. Interactions of L-arginine, isosorbide mononitrate and angiotensin II inhibition on arterial pulse wave. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:719724.
  • 39
    Stokes GS, Barin E, Gilfillan K. Superiority of hypotensive effect of nitrate over that of angiotensin inhibition in patients with refractory systolic hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:119A.
  • 40
    Brosnan MJ, Hamilton CA, Graham D, et al. Irbesartan lowers superoxide levels and increases nitric oxide bioavailability in blood vessels from spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. J Hypertens. 2002;20:281286.
  • 41
    Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, Versari D, et al. Different effect of antihypertensive drugs on conduit artery function. Hypertension. 2003;41:12811286.
  • 42
    Chen R, Iwai M, Wu L, et al. Important role of nitric oxide in the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor imidApril on vascular injury. Hypertension. 2003;42:542547.
  • 43
    Kiowski W, Linder L, Nuesch R, et al. Effect of cilazopril on vascular structure and function in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1996;27:371376.
  • 44
    Schiffrin EL, Park JB, Pu Q. Effect of crossing over hypertensive patients from a beta-blocker to an angiotensin receptor antagonist on resistance artery structure and on endothelial function. J Hypertens. 2002;20:7178.
  • 45
    Stokes GS, Kaesemeyer WH, Smith G. Can L-arginine act as an adjunct to nitrate in therapy for systolic hypertension? Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:198A.
  • 46
    Parker JO, Parker JD, Caldwell RW, et al. The effect of supplemental L-arginine on tolerance development during continuous transdermal nitroglycerin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:11991203.
  • 47
    Nordlander R, Walter M, for the Swedish Multicentre Group. Once- versus twice-daily administration of controlled-release isosorbide-5-mononitrate 60 mg in the treatment of stable angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:108113.
  • 48
    Stork T, Eichstadt H, Mockel M, et al. Hemodynamic action of captopril in coronary patients with heart failure tolerant to nitroglycerin. Clin Cardiol. 1997;20:9991004.
  • 49
    Morgan TO, Anderson A. Different drug classes have variable effects on blood pressure depending on the time of day. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:4650.
  • 50
    Taddei S, Virdis A, Gwhiadoni L, et al. Lacidipine restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1997;30:16061612.
  • 51
    Zhang X, Xu X, Nasjletti A, et al. Amlodipine enhances NO production induced by an ACE inhibitor through a kinin-mediated mechanism in canine coronary microvessels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000;35:195202.
  • 52
    Gori T, Parker JD. Nitrate tolerance. A unifying hypothesis. Circulation. 2002;106:25102513.