• 1
    Cooper R, Rotimi C. Hypertension in blacks. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10:804812.
  • 2
    The American Community Survey 2003. Available at: http:factfinder.census.govservlet. Accessed February 2, 2005.
  • 3
    Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988–2000. JAMA. 2003;290:199206.
  • 4
    Morris RC, Sebastian A, Forman A, et al. Normotensive salt sensitivity: effects of race and dietary potassium. Hypertension. 1999;33:1823.
  • 5
    Falkner B. Differences in blacks and whites with essential hypertension: biochemistry and endocrine. Hypertension. 1990;15:681686.
  • 6
    He FJ, Markandu ND, Sagnelia GA, et al. Importance of the renin system in determining blood pressure fall with salt restriction in black and white hypertensives. Hypertension. 1998;32:820824.
  • 7
    Falkner B, Canessa M, Levison S, et al. Sodium/lithium countertransport is associated with insulin resistance and urinary albumin excretion in young African-Americans. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;29:4553.
  • 8
    Mokwe E, Ohmit SE, Nassar SA, et al. Determinants of blood pressure response to quinapril in black and white hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2004;43:12021207.
  • 9
    Flack JM, Grimm RH Jr, Staffileno BA, et al. New salt-sensitivity metrics: variability-adjusted blood pressure change and the urinary sodium to creatinine ratio. Ethn Dis. 2002;12:1019.
  • 10
    Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, et al., for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American set tings: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:393404.
  • 11
    Ergul S, Parish DC, Puett D, et al. Racial differences in plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in individuals with essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1996;28:652655.
  • 12
    Suthanthiran M, Khanna A, Cukan D, et al. Transforming growth factor-(1) hyperexpression in African-American end stage renal disease patients. Kidney Int. 1998;53:639644.
  • 13
    Campese V, Tawadrous M, Bigazzi R, et al. Salt intake and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide in hypertension. Hypertension. 1996;28:335340.
  • 14
    Somova L, Mufunda J. Ethnic differences of renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of systemic arterial hypertension. Cent Afr J Med. 1996;42:170175.
  • 15
    Kailasam MT, Martinez JA, Cervenka JH, et al. Racial differences in renal kallikrein excretion: effect of the ovulatory cycle. Kidney Int. 1998;54:16521658.
  • 16
    Flack JM, Peters R, Mehra VC, et al. Hypertension in special populations. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2003;28:194223.
  • 17
    He J, Whelton PK. What is the role of dietary sodium and potassium in hypertension and target organ injury? Am J Med Sci. 1999;317:152159.
  • 18
    Adrogue H, Wesson DE. Role of dietary factors in hypertension of African Americans and whites. Semin Nephrol. 1996;16:94101.
  • 19
    Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1997;277:16241632.
  • 20
    Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure: results from the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:11171124.
  • 21
    Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton D, Vollmer WM. Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:285293.
  • 22
    Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, et al. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:10191028.
  • 23
    Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, et al. Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:525541.
  • 24
    Materson BJ, Reda D, Cushman WC, for the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Department of Veterans Affairs single-drug therapy of hypertension study. Revised figures and new data. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8:189192.
  • 25
    Saunders E, Weir MR, Kong BW, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of a β-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive blacks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:17071713.
  • 26
    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs. diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288:29812997.
  • 27
    Weir MR, Hall PS, Behrens MT, et al. Salt and blood pressure responses to calcium antagonism in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1997;30:422427.
  • 28
    Skoularigis J, Weinberg J, Strugo V, et al. Effect of is radipine in black patients with very severe hypertension. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardio-graphic evaluation. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7:10581064.
  • 29
    Weir MR, Gray JM, Paster R, et al. Differing mechanisms of action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in black and white hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1995;26:124130.
  • 30
    Agodoa LY, Appel L, Bakris GL, et al. African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Study Group. Effect of ramipril vs. amlodipine on renal outcomes in hypertensive nephrosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285:27192728.
  • 31
    Wright JT Jr, Bakris G, Greene T, et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive drug class on progression of hypertensive kidney disease: results from the AASK trial. JAMA. 2002;288:24212431.