SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics?. 2005 Update.Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2005.
  • 2
    Cooper R, Rotimi C. Hypertension in blacks. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10: 804812.
  • 3
    Wang Y, Wang QJ. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new Joint National Committee guidelines: new challenges of the old problem. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164: 21262134.
  • 4
    Winkleby MA, Robinson TN, Sundquist J, et al. Ethnic variation in cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and young adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. JAMA. 1999;281: 10061013.
  • 5
    Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42: 12061252.
  • 6
    Levine RS, Foster JE, Fullilove RE, et al. Black-white inequalities in mortality and life expectancy, 1933–1999: implications for healthy people 2010. Public Health Rep. 2001;116: 474483.
  • 7
    Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157: 24132446.
  • 8
    Onwuanyi AE, Clarke A, Vanderbush E. Cardiovascular disease mortality. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003;95: 11461151.
  • 9
    Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States,. 1988–2000. JAMA. 2003;290: 199206.
  • 10
    Henderson SO, Bretsky P, DeQuattro V, et al. Treatment of hypertension in African Americans and Latinos: the effect of JNC VI on urban prescribing practices. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003;5: 107112.
  • 11
    Stamler J, Stamler R, Neaton JD, et al. Low risk-factor profile and long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: findings for 5 large cohorts of young adult and middle-aged men and women. JAMA. 1999;282: 20122018.
  • 12
    Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ, et al. Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA. 2002;288: 18821888.
  • 13
    Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163: 525541.
  • 14
    Law CM, Shiell AW. Is blood pressure inversely related to birth weight? The strength of evidence from a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens. 1996;14: 935941.
  • 15
    Richardson AD, Piepho RW. Effect of race on hypertension and antihypertensive therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;38: 7579.
  • 16
    Ferdinand KC. Coronary heart disease and lipid-modifying treatment in African American patients. Am Heart J. 2004;147: 774782.
  • 17
    Stamler R. Implications of the INTERSALT study. Hypertension. 1991;17(suppl 1):I16I20.
  • 18
    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al., For the Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360: 19031913.
  • 19
    Guidelines Subcommittee. 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 1999;17: 151183.
  • 20
    Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Five-year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. II. Mortality by race-sex and age. JAMA. 1979;242: 25722577.
  • 21
    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs. diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288: 29812997.
  • 22
    Wright JT Jr, Bakris G, Greene T, et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive drug class on progression of hypertensive kidney disease: results from the AASK trial. JAMA. 2002;288: 24212431.
  • 23
    Sica DA. The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial: what more have we learned? J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003;5: 159167.
  • 24
    Rahman M. Initial findings of the AASK: African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease benefit from an ACE inhibitor. Cleve Clin J Med. 2003;70: 304312.
  • 25
    Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, et al. Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American settings: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4: 393404.
  • 26
    Pepine CJ, Handberg EM, Cooper-DeHoff RM, et al. A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290: 28052816.
  • 27
    Cooper-DeHoff R, Gaxiola E, Cangiano JL, et al. Blood pressure reduction and CV outcomes in hypertensive Hispanics, Blacks, and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: the International Verapamil/trandolapril Study. Circulation. 2003;108(suppl IV):450. Abstract 2070.
  • 28
    Grundy SM, Balady GJ, Criqui MH, et al. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: guidance from Framingham: a statement for healthcare professionals from the AHA Task Force on Risk Reduction. American Heart Association. Circulation. 1998;97: 18761887.
  • 29
    D'Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, et al. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA. 2001;286: 180187.
  • 30
    Ashaye MO, Giles WH. Hypertension in Blacks: a literature review. Ethn Dis. 2003;13: 456462.
  • 31
    Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336: 11171124.
  • 32
    Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med. 2001;344: 310.
  • 33
    Kotchen TA, McCarron DA. Dietary electrolytes and blood pressure: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 1998;98: 613617.
  • 34
    Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1997;277: 16241632.
  • 35
    Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134: 111.
  • 36
    Saunders E, Weir MR, Kong BW, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of a beta-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive blacks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150: 17071713.
  • 37
    Cushman WC, Reda DJ, Perry HM, et al. Regional and racial differences in response to antihypertensive medication use in a randomized controlled trial of men with hypertension in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160: 825831.
  • 38
    Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993;328: 914921.
  • 39
    Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, et al. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study. Lancet. 1999;354: 17511756.
  • 40
    Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342: 145153.
  • 41
    Parving HH, Hommel E, Jensen BR, et al. Long-term beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on diabetic nephropathy in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients. Kidney Int. 2001;60: 228234.
  • 42
    Køber L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE, et al. A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1995;333: 16701676.
  • 43
    Tatti P, Pahor M, Byington RP, et al. Outcome results of the Fosinopril Versus Amlodipine Cardiovascular Events Randomized Trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1998;21: 597603.
  • 44
    Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR, et al. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1998;338: 645652.
  • 45
    Cleland JG, Erhardt L, Murray G, et al., On behalf of the AIRE Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on morbidity and mode of death among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. A report from the AIRE Study Investigators. Eur Heart J. 1997;18: 4151.
  • 46
    Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Bain RP, et al., For the Collaborative Study Group. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1993;329: 14561462.
  • 47
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med. 1992;327: 685691.
  • 48
    Elliott WJ. Higher incidence of discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors due to cough in black subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60: 582588.
  • 49
    Pylypchuk GB. ACE inhibitor-versus angiotensin II blocker-induced cough and angioedema. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32: 10601066.
  • 50
    Weir MR, Smith DH, Neutel JM, et al. Valsartan alone or with a diuretic or ACE inhibitor as treatment for African American hypertensives: relation to salt intake. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14: 665671.
  • 51
    McGill JB, Reilly PA. Combination treatment with telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in black patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Clin Cardiol. 2001;24: 6672.
  • 52
    Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345: 851860.
  • 53
    Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345: 861869.
  • 54
    Parving HH, Lehnert H, Brochner-Mortensen J, et al. The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345: 870878.
  • 55
    Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359: 9951003.
  • 56
    Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlöf B, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359: 10041010.
  • 57
    Julius S, Alderman MH, Beevers G, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in hypertensive black patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43: 10471055.
  • 58
    Cohn J., Tognoni G, for the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial Investigators. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345: 16671675.
  • 59
    Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: executive summary and recommendations. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee on the management of patients with unstable angina). Circulation. 2000;102: 11931209.
  • 60
    Gibbons RJ, Abrams J, Chatterjee K, et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with chronic stable angina—summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients With Chronic Stable Angina). Circulation. 2003;107: 149158.
  • 61
    Gottlieb SS, McCarter RJ, Vogel RA. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality among high-risk and low-risk patients after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: 489497.
  • 62
    Prisant LM, Mensah GA. Use of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers in blacks. J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;36: 867873.
  • 63
    Mogensen CE, Neldam S, Tikkanen I, et al. Randomised controlled trial of dual blockade of renin-angiotensin system in patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, and non-insulin dependent diabetes: the candesartan and lisinopril microalbuminuria (CALM) study. BMJ. 2000;321: 14401444.
  • 64
    Lüscher TF, Waeber B. Efficacy and safety of various combination therapies based on a calcium antagonist in essential hypertension: results of a placebo-controlled randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1993;21: 305309.
  • 65
    Fogari R, Corea L, Cardoni O, et al. Combined therapy with benazepril and amlodipine in the treatment of hypertension inadequately controlled by an ACE inhibitor alone. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1997;30: 497503.
  • 66
    Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Williams ., For the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on antihypertensive agents. Lessons from combination therapy in Veterans Affairs Studies. Am J Hypertens. 1996;9: 187S191S.
  • 67
    Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet. 1998;351: 17551762.
  • 68
    SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA. 1991;265: 32553264.
  • 69
    Kochar M, Guthrie R, Triscari J, et al. Matrix study of irbesartan with hydrochlorothiazide in mild-to-moderate hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12: 797805.
  • 70
    McGill JB, Reilly PA. Telmisartan plus hydrochlorothiazide versus telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup trial. Clin Ther. 2001;23: 833850.
  • 71
    Weinberger MH. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors enhance the antihypertensive efficacy of diuretics and blunt or prevent adverse metabolic effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989;13(suppl 3):S1S4.
  • 72
    Pool JL, Cushman WC, Saini RK, et al. Use of the factorial design and quadratic response surface models to evaluate the fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy in hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10: 117123.
  • 73
    Soffer BA, Wright JT Jr, Pratt JH, et al. Effects of losartan on a background of hydrochlorothiazide in patients with hypertension. Hypertension. 1995;26: 112117.
  • 74
    Frishman WH, Bryzinski BS, Coulson LR, et al. A multifactorial trial design to assess combination therapy in hypertension. Treatment with bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154: 14611468.
  • 75
    Roca-Cusachs A, Torres F, Horas M, et al. Nitrendipine and enalapril combination therapy in mild to moderate hypertension: assessment of dose-response relationship by a clinical trial of factorial design. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38: 840849.
  • 76
    Frishman WH, Ram CV, McMahon FG, et al. Comparison of amlodipine and benazepril monotherapy to amlodipine plus benazepril in patients with systemic hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup study. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995;35: 10601066.
  • 77
    Messerli FH, Oparil S, Feng Z. Comparison of efficacy and side effects of combination therapy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (benazepril) with calcium antagonist. (either nifedipine or amlodipine) versus high-dose calcium antagonist monotherapy for systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86: 11821187.
  • 78
    Hilleman D. Cost effectiveness of combination therapy. Am J Manag Care. 1999;5: S449S453.