• 1
    Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet. 2005;365:14151428.
  • 2
    Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:683689.
  • 3
    Lakka H-M, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002;288:27092716.
  • 4
    Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:10661076.
  • 5
    Mule G, Nardi E, Cottone S, et al. Influence of metabolic syndrome on hypertension-related target organ damage. J Intern Med. 2005;257:503513.
  • 6
    Cuspidi C, Meani S, Fusi V, et al. Prevalence and correlates of left atrial enlargement in essential hypertension: role of ventricular geometry and the metabolic syndrome: the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension study. J Hypertens. 2005;23:875882.
  • 7
    Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, et al. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Diabetologia. 2005;48:16841699.
  • 8
    Gale E. The myth of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia. 2005;48:16791683.
  • 9
    Hulthe J, Bokemark L, Wikstrand J, et al. The metabolic syndrome, LDL particle size, and atherosclerosis: the Atherosclerosis and Insulin Resistance (AIR) study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:21402147.
  • 10
    Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Chambless LE, et al. Risk factors for cardiovascular event recurrence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J. 2005;149:606612.
  • 11
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 2005;112:27352752.
  • 12
    Friedman R, Schwartz JE, Schnall PL, et al. Psychological variables in hypertension: relationship to casual or ambulatory blood pressure in men. Psychosom Med. 2001;63:1931.
  • 13
    Devereux R, Roman MJ. Evaluation of cardiac and vascular structure and function by echocardiography and other noninvasive techniques. In: LaraghJH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1995:19691985.
  • 14
    Devereux R, Reichek N. Echocardiographic determination of left ventricular mass in man. Anatomic validation of the method. Circulation. 1977;55:613618.
  • 15
    Devereux R, Alonso D, Lutas E, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings. Am J Cardiol. 1986;57:450458.
  • 16
    Schiller N, Shah P, Crawford M, et al. Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1989;2:358367.
  • 17
    Devereux RB, Dahlof B, Levy D, et al. Comparison of enalapril versus nifedipine to decrease left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension (the PRESERVE trial). Am J Cardiol. 1996;78:6165.
  • 18
    Saba PS, Roman MJ, Longhini C, et al. Carotid intimal-medial thickness and stiffness are not affected by hypercholesterolemia in uncomplicated essential hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:27882794.
  • 19
    Roman MJ, Pickering TG, Schwartz JE, et al. Association of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25:8390.
  • 20
    Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, et al. Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging. Circulation. 1986;74:13991406.
  • 21
    Nagelkerke NJD. A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika. 1991;78:691692.
  • 22
    Savage DD, Levy D, Dannenberg AL, et al. Association of echocardiographic left ventricular mass with body size, blood pressure and physical activity (the Framingham study). Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:371376.
  • 23
    Chinali M, Devereux RB, Howard BV, et al. Comparison of cardiac structure and function in American Indians with and without the metabolic syndrome (the Strong Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2004;93:4044.
  • 24
    Schillaci G, Pirro M, Pucci G, et al. Different Impact of the metabolic syndrome on left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive men and women. Hypertension. 2006;47:881886.
  • 25
    Stensland-Bugge E, Bonaa KH, Joakimsen O, et al. Sex differences in the relationship of risk factors to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis measured 15 years later: the Tromso study. Stroke. 2000;31:574581.
  • 26
    Zureik M, Ducimetiere P, Touboul P-J, et al. Common carotid intima-media thickness predicts occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: longitudinal results from the Aging Vascular Study (EVA) study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:16221629.
  • 27
    Weber F. Risk factors for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in healthy men. Neurology. 2002;59:524528.
  • 28
    Nagai Y, Metter EJ, Earley CJ, et al. Increased carotid artery intimal-medial thickness in asymptomatic older subjects with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Circulation. 1998;98:15041509.
  • 29
    Zanchetti A, Crepaldi G, Bond MG, et al. Systolic and pulse blood pressures (but not diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol) are associated with alterations in carotid intima-media thickness in the moderately hypercholesterolaemic hypertensive patients of the Plaque Hypertension Lipid Lowering Italian Study. PHYLLIS study group. J Hypertens. 2001;19:7988.
  • 30
    Poli A, Tremoli E, Colombo A, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of the common carotid artery wall thickness in hypercholesterolemic patients. A new model for the quantitation and follow-up of preclinical atherosclerosis in living human subjects. Atherosclerosis. 1988;70:253261.
  • 31
    Gariepy J, Simon A, Massonneau M, et al. Wall thickening of carotid and femoral arteries in male subjects with isolated hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 1995;113:141151.
  • 32
    Scuteri A, Najjar SS, Muller DC, et al. Metabolic syndrome amplifies the age-associated increases in vascular thickness and stiffness. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:13881395.
  • 33
    Hassinen M, Komulainen P, Lakka TA, et al. Metabolic syndrome and the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:444449.
  • 34
    Golden SH, Folsom AR, Coresh J, et al. Risk factor groupings related to insulin resistance and their synergistic effects on subclinical atherosclerosis: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes. 2002;51:30693076.
  • 35
    Mathiesen EB, Bonaa KH, Joakimsen O. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with echolucent carotid artery plaques: the Tromso Study. Stroke. 2001;32:19601965.
  • 36
    Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Elkasabany A, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors clustering features of insulin resistance syndrome (Syndrome X) in a biracial (Black-White) population of children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:667674.
  • 37
    Ko GT, Cockram CS, Woo J, et al. Obesity, insulin resistance and isolated low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in Chinese subjects. Diabet Med. 2001;18:663666.
  • 38
    Barter PJ, Nicholls S, Rye K-A, et al. Antiinflammatory properties of HDL. Circ Res. 2004;95:764772.
  • 39
    Assmann G, Gotto AM Jr. HDL cholesterol and protective factors in atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2004;109(suppl 1):III8III14.
  • 40
    Ishizaka N, Ishizaka Y, Hashimoto H, et al. Metabolic syndrome may not associate with carotid plaque in subjects with optimal, normal, or high-normal blood pressure. Hypertension. 2006;48:411417.
  • 41
    Salonen R, Seppanen K, Rauramaa R, et al. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and serum cholesterol levels in eastern Finland. Arteriosclerosis. 1988;8:788792.
  • 42
    Tartiere JM, Kesri L, Safar H, et al. Association between pulse pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and carotid and/or iliofemoral plaque in hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens. 2004;18:325331.
  • 43
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002;287:356359.
  • 44
    Godefroi R, Klementowicz P, Pepler C, et al. Metabolic syndrome in a screened worksite sample: prevalence and predictors. Cardiology. 2005;103:131136.