• 1
    Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988–2000. JAMA. 2003;290:199206.
  • 2
    Yu W, Ravelo AL, Wagner TH, et al. The cost of common chronic diseases in the VA health care system. Abstract presented at: 20th Annual Meeting of the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Service. Washington, DC; February 1315, 2002.
  • 3
    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:25602572.
  • 4
    Veterans Administration, Department of Defense. VHA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in the Primary Care Setting. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs; 1999.
  • 5
    The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in highrisk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288:29812997.
  • 6
    Andrade SE, Gurwitz JH, Field TS, et al. Hypertension management: the care gap between clinical guidelines and clinical practice. Am J Manag Care. 2004;10:481486.
  • 7
    Berlowitz DR, Ash AS, Hickey EC, et al. Inadequate management of blood pressure in a hypertensive population. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:19571963.
  • 8
    Steinman MA, Fischer MA, Shlipak MG, et al. Clinician awareness of adherence to hypertension guidelines. Am J Med. 2004;117:747754.
  • 9
    Ornstein SM, Nietert PJ, Dickerson LM. Hypertension management and control in primary care: a study of 20 practices in 14 states. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(4):500507.
  • 10
    Siegel D, Lopez J, Meier J, et al. Academic detailing to improve antihypertensive prescribing patterns. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:508511.
  • 11
    Tu K, Davis D. Can we alter physician behavior by educational methods? Lessons learned from studies of the management and follow-up of hypertension. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2002;22:1122.
  • 12
    Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, et al. Why don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA. 1999;282:14581465.
  • 13
    Hayward RS. Clinical practice guidelines on trial. CMAJ. 1997;156(12):17251727.
  • 14
    Murray MD, Harris LE, Overhage JM, et al. Failure of computerized treatment suggestions to improve health outcomes of outpatients with uncomplicated hypertension: results of a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24:324337.
  • 15
    Goldstein MK. Innovation in practice: ATHENA DSS Hypertension Management System. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:107.
  • 16
    Milchak JL, Carter BL, James PA, et al. Measuring adherence to practice guidelines for the management of hypertension: an evaluation of the literature. Hypertension. 2004;44:602608.
  • 17
    Walsh JM, McDonald KM, Shojania KG, et al. Quality improvement strategies for hypertension management: a systematic review. Med Care. 2006;44:646657.
  • 18
    Carter BL, Hartz A, Bergus G, et al. Relationship between physician knowledge of hypertension and blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8:481486.
  • 19
    Ubel PA, Jepson C, Asch DA. Misperceptions about betablockers and diuretics: a national survey of primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:977983.
  • 20
    MyHealtheVet Web site. Accessed August 16, 2006.
  • 21
    Alexander GC, Casalino LP, Meltzer DO. Physician strategies to reduce patients' out-of-pocket prescription costs. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:633636.
  • 22
    Roumie CL, Elasy TA, Greevy R, et al. Improving blood pressure control through provider education, provider alerts, and patient education: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:165175.
  • 23
    Moser M, Franklin SS. Hypertension management: results of new national survey for the hypertension education foundation: Harris interactive. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9(5):316232.
  • 24
    Asch DA, Jedrziewski MK, Christakis NA. Response rates to mail surveys published in medical journals. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50:11291136.
  • 25
    Sjostrom O, Holst D. Validity of a questionnaire survey: response patterns in different subgroups and the effect of social desirability. Acta Odontol Scand. 2002;60:136140.
  • 26
    Kravitz RL. MSJAMA: direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: implications for the patient-physician relationship. JAMA. 2000;284(17):2244.