• 1
    Fields LE, Burt VL, Cutler JA, et al. The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 to 2000: a rising tide. Hypertension. 2004;44:398404.
  • 2
    Ong KL, Cheung BMY, Man YB, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among United States adults 1999–2004. Hypertension. 2007;49:6975.
  • 3
    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al, for the Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360:19031913.
  • 4
    MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990;335:765774.
  • 5
    Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet. 1990;335:827838.
  • 6
    Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, et al. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:12911297.
  • 7
    Grimm RH Jr, Cohen JD, Smith WM, et al. Hypertension management in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Six-year intervention results for men in special intervention and usual care groups. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:11911199.
  • 8
    Zampaglione B, Pascale C, Marchisio M, et al. Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Prevalence and clinical presentation. Hypertension. 1996;27:144147.
  • 9
    Preston RA, Baltodano NM, Cienki J, et al. Clinical presentation and management of patients with uncontrolled, severe hypertension: results from a public teaching hospital. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:249255.
  • 10
    Flanigan JS, Vitberg D. Hypertensive emergency and severe hypertension: what to treat, who to treat, and how to treat. Med Clin North Am. 2006;90:439451.
  • 11
    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002;288:29812997.
  • 12
    Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressures averaging 115 through 129 mm Hg. JAMA. 1967;202:10281034.
  • 13
    Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. II. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mm Hg. JAMA. 1970;213:11431152.
  • 14
    Wolff FW, Lindeman RD. Effects of treatment in hypertension. Results of a controlled study. J Chronic Dis. 1966;19:227240.
  • 15
    Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, et al. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet. 2004;363:20222031.
  • 16
    Lithell H, Hansson L, Skoog I, et al. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): principal results of a randomized double-blind intervention trial. J Hypertens. 2003;21:875886.
  • 17
    Staessen JA, Thijisq L, Fagard R, et al. Effects of immediate versus delayed antihypertensive therapy on outcome in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial. J Hypertens. 2004;22:847857.
  • 18
    Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet. 1998;351:17551762.
  • 19
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet. 2000;355:253259.
  • 20
    The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145153.
  • 21
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(5 suppl 1):S1S290.
  • 22
    Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:12061252.
  • 23
    Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21:10111053.
  • 24
    Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:525541.
  • 25
    World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21:19831992.
  • 26
    Standards of medical care in diabetes—2007. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(suppl 1):S4S41.
  • 27
    Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Kramer H, et al. Hypertension treatment and control in five European countries, Canada, and the United States. Hypertension. 2004;43:1017.
  • 28
    Neutel JM, Smith DH. Improving patient compliance: a major goal in the management of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003;5:127132.
  • 29
    Huse DM, Roht LH, Alpert JS, et al. Physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practice of pharmacologic treatment of hypertension. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35:11731179.
  • 30
    Oliveria SA, Lapuerta P, McCarthy BD, et al. Physician-related barriers to the effective management of uncontrolled hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:413420.
  • 31
    Martins D, Norris K. Hypertension treatment in African Americans: physiology is less important than sociology. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71:735743.
  • 32
    Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:914921.
  • 33
    Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, for the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Department of Veterans Affairs single-drug therapy of hypertension study. Revised figures and new data. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8:189192.
  • 34
    Moser M, Franklin SS. Hypertension management: results of a new national survey for the Hypertension Education Foundation: Harris Interactive. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:316323.
  • 35
    Sica DA. Rationale for fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of hypertension: the cycle repeats. Drugs. 2002;62:443462.
  • 36
    Gavras I, Rosenthal T. Combination therapy as first-line treatment for hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2004;6:267272.
  • 37
    Neutel JM, Smith DH, Weber MA. Low-dose combination therapy: an important first-line treatment in the management of hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:286292.
  • 38
    Prisant LM. Fixed low-dose combination in first-line treatment of hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl. 2002;20(suppl 1):S11S19.
  • 39
    Skolnik NS, Beck JD, Clark M. Combination antihypertensive drugs: recommendations for use. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61:30493056.
  • 40
    Waeber B. Combination therapy with ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diuretics in hypertension. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2003;1:4350.
  • 41
    Kochar M, Guthrie R, Triscari J, et al. Matrix study of irbesartan with hydrochlorothiazide in mild-to-moderate hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12:797805.
  • 42
    McGill JB, Reilly PA. Telmisartan plus hydrochlorothiazide versus telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Clin Ther. 2001;23:833850.
  • 43
    Karalliedde J, Viberti G. Evidence for renoprotection by blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertension and diabetes. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:239253.
  • 44
    Izuhara Y, Nangaku M, Inagi R, et al. Renoprotective properties of angiotensin receptor blockers beyond blood pressure lowering. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:36313641.
  • 45
    Ruggenenti P, Perna A, Remuzzi G. ACE inhibitors to prevent end-stage renal disease: when to start and why possibly never to stop: a post hoc analysis of the REIN trial results. Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:28322837.
  • 46
    Tylicki L, Larczynski W, Rutkowski B. Renal protective effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade: from evidence-based approach to perspectives. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2005;28:230242.
  • 47
    Giunti S, Cooper M. Management strategies for patients with hypertension and diabetes: why combination therapy is critical. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8:108113.
  • 48
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(suppl 1):S4S36.
  • 49
    Neutel JM, Franklin SS, Oparil S, et al. Efficacy and safety of irbesartan/HCTZ combination therapy as initial treatment for rapid control of severe hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8:850857.
  • 50
    Salerno CM, Demopoulos L, Mukherjee R, et al. Combination angiotensin receptor blocker/hydrochlorothiazide as initial therapy in the treatment of patients with severe hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2004;6:614620.
  • 51
    Rump LC, Ambrosioni E, Burnier M, et al. Initial combination therapy with olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide in moderate-to-severe hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:299301.
  • 52
    Lacourcière Y, Poirier L, Hebert D, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of two fixed-dose combinations of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide compared with valsartan monotherapy in patients with stage 2 or 3 systolic hypertension: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Clin Ther. 2005;27:10131021.
  • 53
    Lapuerta P, Ptaszynska A. Irbesartan/HCTZ as initial treatment in patients with moderate hypertension. Presented at: European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology; June 1216, 2006; Madrid, Spain. Poster 493.
  • 54
    Gradman AH, Brady WE, Gazdick LP, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trial of the efficacy and tolerability of once-daily losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg and losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg in the treatment of moderate-to-severe essential hypertension. Clin Ther. 2002;24:10491061.
  • 55
    Lenz T, Schulte KL, Wagner B, et al. Quinapril, hydrochlorothiazide, and combination in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:940946.
  • 56
    Cushman WC, Cohen JD, Jones RP, et al. Comparison of the fixed combination of enalapril/diltiazem ER and their monotherapies in stage 1 to 3 essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1998;11:2330.
  • 57
    Bristol-Myers Squibb Sanofi-Synthelabo Partnership Avalide Web site. Accessed September 22, 2006.
  • 58
    Rosenstock J, Rossi L, Lin CS, et al. The effects of irbesartan added to hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of hypertension in patients non-responsive to hydrochlorothiazide alone. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1998;23:433440.
  • 59
    Howe P, Phillips P, Saini R, et al. The antihypertensive efficacy of the combination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Irbesartan Multicenter Study Group. Clin Exp Hypertens. 1999;21:13731396.
  • 60
    Raskin P, Guthrie R, Flack J, et al. The long-term antihypertensive activity and tolerability of irbesartan with hydrochlorothiazide. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:683687.
  • 61
    Franklin SS, Bhaumik A, Ptaszynska A. Early reduction of exposure to severe blood pressure levels with irbesartan/HCTZ as a first-line treatment of severe hypertension. Presented at: European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology; June 1216, 2006; Madrid, Spain. Poster 492.