• 1
    Wong ND, Thakral G, Franklin SS, et al. Preventing heart disease by controlling hypertension: impact of hypertension subtype, stage, age, and sex. Am Heart J. 2003;145:888895.
  • 2
    Cheung BMY, Ong KL, Man YB, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8:9398.
  • 3
    Ong KL, Cheung BMY, Man YB, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among United States adults 1999–2004. Hypertension. 2007;49:6975.
  • 4
    Moser M, Franklin SS. Hypertension management: results of a new national survey for the hypertension education foundation: Harris interactive. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:316323.
  • 5
    Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Kramer H, et al. Hypertension treatment and control in five European countries, Canada, and the United States. Hypertension. 2004;43:1017.
  • 6
    Law MR, Wald NJ. Risk factor thresholds: their existence under scrutiny. BMJ. 2002;324:15701576.
  • 7
    Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2007;28:14621536.
  • 8
    Staessen JA, Li Y, Thijs L, et al. Blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular prevention: an update including the 2003–2004 secondary prevention trials. Hypertens Res. 2005;28:385407.
  • 9
    Weber MA, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Blood pressure dependent and independent effects of antihypertensive treatment on clinical events in the VALUE trial. Lancet. 2004;363:20492051.
  • 10
    Law MR, Wald NJ, Morris JK, et al. Value of low dose combination treatment with blood pressure lowering drugs: analysis of 354 randomised trials. BMJ. 2003;326:14271434.
  • 11
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145153.
  • 12
    Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Libby P, et al; for CAMELOT Investigators. Effects of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:22172226.
  • 13
    Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360:19031913.
  • 14
    Cushman WC, Grimm RH Jr, Cutler JA, et al; for ACCORD Study Group. Rationale and design for the blood pressure intervention of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(12A):44i55i.
  • 15
    Staessen JA, Thijs L, Fagard R, et al; for Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Effects of immediate versus delayed antihypertensive therapy on outcome in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe trial. J Hypertens. 2004;22:847857.
  • 16
    Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:12061252.
  • 17
    Gerbino PP, Shoheiber O. Adherence patterns among patients treated with a fixed-dose combination versus separate antihypertensive agents. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:12791283.
  • 18
    Jamerson K, Bakris GL, Dahlöf B, et al. Exceptional early blood pressure control rates: the ACCOMPLISH trial. Blood Press. 2007;16:8086.
  • 19
    Weber MA. Creating a combination antihypertensive regimen: what does the research show? J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003;5(4 suppl 3):1220.
  • 20
    Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR, et al; for ASCOT Investigators. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:895906.
  • 21
    Jamerson KA, Nwose O, Jean-Louis L, et al. Initial angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/calcium channel blocker combination therapy achieves superior blood pressure control compared with calcium channel blocker monotherapy in patients with stage 2 hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:495501.
  • 22
    Bakris GL, Weir MR; for Study of Hypertension and the Efficacy of Lotrel in Diabetes (SHIELD) Investigators. Achieving goal blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: conventional versus fixed-dose combination approaches. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003;5:202209.
  • 23
    Kjeldsen SE, Aksnes TA, De La Sierra A, et al. Amlodipine and valsartan: calcium channel blockers/angiotensin II receptor blockers combination for hypertension. Therapy. 2007;4:3140.
  • 24
    Dagenais NJ, Jamali F. Protective effects of angiotensin II interruption: evidence for antiinflammatory actions. Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25:12131229.
  • 25
    Schulman IH, Zachariah M, Raij L. Calcium channel blockers, endothelial dysfunction, and combination therapy. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005;17(suppl):4045.
  • 26
    Brasier AR, Recinos A II, Eledrisi MS. Vascular inflammation and the renin-angiotensin system. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:12571266.
  • 27
    Zhou MS, Schulman IH, Raij L. Nitric oxide, angiotensin II, and hypertension. Semin Nephrol. 2004;24:366378.
  • 28
    Siragy HM, Xue C, Webb RL. Beneficial effects of combined benazepril-amlodipine on cardiac nitric oxide, cGMP, and TNF-α production after cardiac ischemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47:636642.
  • 29
    Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al; for LIFE Study Group. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:9951003.
  • 30
    Schrader J, Luders S, Kulschewski A, et al; for MOSES Study Group. Morbidity and mortality after stroke, eprosartan compared with nitrendipine for secondary prevention: principal results of a prospective randomized controlled study (MOSES). Stroke. 2005;36:12181226.
  • 31
    Iadecola C, Gorelick PB. Hypertension, angiotensin, and stroke: beyond blood pressure. Stroke. 2004;35:348350.
  • 32
    Philipp T, Smith TR, Glazer R, et al. Two multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of amlodipine and valsartan in combination and as monotherapy in adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Clin Ther. 2007;29:563580.
  • 33
    Philipp T, Glazer R, Wersing M, et al. Dual calcium channel and angiotensin receptor blockade is superior to amlodipine or valsartan alone for optimal hypertension control [Abstract P-83]. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9(5 suppl A):A39.
  • 34
    Smith TR, Philipp T, Vaisse B, et al. Amlodipine and valsartan combined and as monotherapy in stage 2, elderly, and black hypertensive patients: subgroup analyses of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled studies. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:355364.
  • 35
    Poldermans D, Glazer R, Karagiannis S, et al. Tolerability and blood pressure-lowering efficacy of the combination of amlodipine plus valsartan compared with lisinopril plus hydrochlorothiazide in adult patients with stage 2 hypertension. Clin Ther. 2007;29:279289.
  • 36
    Chrysant SG, Melino M, Karki S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial study evaluating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of amlodipine besylate (AML) plus olmesartan medoxomil (OM) compared to monotherapy in patients (PTS) with mild to severe hypertension (HTN) [abstract]. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:486.
  • 37
    Telmisartan (Micardis) and amlodipine (Norvasc) - factorial design study for the treatment of hypertension. http://clinical Accessed October 10, 2007.