• Archean;
  • greenstone;
  • high XCO2;
  • low-pressure metamorphism;
  • ocean-floor metamorphism


A hydrothermally metamorphosed greenstone complex, capped by bedded cherts and banded iron formations (BIFs), is exposed in the Cleaverville area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. It has been interpreted as an accretionary complex characterized by both a duplex structure and an oceanic plate stratigraphy, and is shown to represent a 3.2 Ga upper oceanic crust. Three metamorphic zones are identified in the basaltic greenstones. The metamorphic grade increases from sub-greenschist facies (zones A and B) to greenschist facies (zone C) under low-pressure conditions. The boundaries between three mineral zones are subparallel to the bedding plane of overlying chert/BIF, and metamorphic temperature increases stratigraphically downward. The zones correspond to the thermal structure of ocean-floor metamorphism, at a mid-ocean ridge.

The uppermost greenstone in the study area is more pervasively altered and carbonatized than the modern upper oceanic crust. This indicates the enrichment of CO2 in the metamorphic fluid by which widespread formation of carbonate occurred, compared with a narrow stability region of Ca-Al silicates. It is, therefore, suggested that the Archean hydrothermal alteration played a more important role in fixation of CO2 than present-day ocean-ridge hydrothermal alteration, as an interaction between sea water and oceanic crust.