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Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols on Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells
Article first published online: 18 JUL 2008
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
Volume 224, Issue 4, pages 292–301, September 2000
How to Cite
McIntyre, B. S., Briski, K. P., Gapor, A. and Sylvester, P. W. (2000), Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols on Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 224: 292–301. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1373.2000.22434.x
This work was supported in part by AICR Grant 96B053.
- Issue published online: 18 JUL 2008
- Article first published online: 18 JUL 2008
- Received January 24, 2000. [P.S.E.B.M. 2000, Vol 224] Accepted April 5, 2000.
Abstract. Studies were conducted to determine the comparative effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on preneoplastic (CL-S1), neoplastic (-SA), and highly malignant (+SA) mouse mammary epithelial cell growth and viability in vitro. Over a 5-day culture period, treatment with 0–120 μMα- and γ-tocopherol had no effect on cell proliferation, whereas growth was inhibited 50% (IC50) as compared with controls by treatment with the following: 13, 7, and 6 μM tocotrienol-rich-fraction of palm oil (TRF); 55, 47, and 23 μMδ-tocopherol; 12, 7, and 5 μMα-tocotrienol; 8, 5, and 4 μMγ-tocotrienol; or 7, 4, and 3 μMδ-tocotrienol in CL-S1, -SA and +SA cells, respectively. Acute 24-hr exposure to 0–250 μMα- or γ-tocopherol (CL-S1, -SA, and +SA) or 0–250 μMδ-tocopherol (CL-S1) had no effect on cell viability, whereas cell viability was reduced 50% (LD50) as compared with controls by treatment with 166 or 125 μMδ-tocopherol in -SA and +SA cells, respectively. Additional LD50 doses were determined as the following: 50, 43, and 38 μM TRF; 27, 28, and 23 μMα-tocotrienol; 19, 17, and 14 μMγ-tocotrienol; or 16, 15, or 12 μMδ-tocotrienol in CL-S1, -SA, and +SA cells, respectively. Treatment-induced cell death resulted from activation of apoptosis, as indicated by DNA fragmentation. Results also showed that CL-S1, -SA, and +SA cells preferentially accumulate tocotrienols as compared with tocopherols, and this may partially explain why tocotrienols display greater biopotency than tocopherols. These data also showed that highly malignant +SA cells were the most sensitive, whereas the preneoplastic CL-S1 cells were the least sensitive to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocotrienols, and suggest that tocotrienols may have potential health benefits in preventing and/or reducing the risk of breast cancer in women.