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PROGRESS IN UREMIC TOXIN RESEARCH: Cytokines, Atherogenesis, and Hypercatabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Dreadful Triad

Authors

  • Juan Jesus Carrero,

    1. Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Sun-Hee Park,

    1. Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Jonas Axelsson,

    1. Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Bengt Lindholm,

    1. Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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  • Peter Stenvinkel

    1. Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
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Address correspondence to: Peter Stenvinkel, Division of Renal Medicine, K56. Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden, or e-mail: peter.stenvinkel@ki.se.

Abstract

The term cytokine clusters denotes a copious family of molecules and correspondent receptors implicated in numerous processes mediating health and disease. In the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD), generation and metabolism of most of these cytokines are disturbed. Available evidence suggests that cytokine imbalances contribute to the progression of common CKD complications, such as atherosclerosis, mineral-bone disease, and protein-energy wasting via pleiotropic effects. The belief that cytokine CKD research is solely represented by interleukins (IL) and tumor-necrosis factors (TNF) (mainly IL-6 and TNF-α) is a common misconception among nephrologists. We here explore recent findings concerning the pathophysiological role of various cytokines in uremic complications, and discuss how cytokines could be used as novel potential therapeutic targets in CKD. At the same time, we provide a brief overview of current discoveries in the main transforming growth factors and chemokines.

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