The past decade has witnessed an evolution of the specialty of Nephrology in the United States to an interventional discipline. Traditionally, Interventional Nephrologists have focused on the venous side of an arteriovenous access. However, these specialists are beginning to include arterial disease related to renal patients under the purview of this specialty. Recent data have emphasized that inflow stenosis of an arteriovenous access frequently results in vascular access dysfunction. Peripheral vascular disease, resulting in distal hypoperfusion ischemia syndrome of the hand bearing the access, is similarly being recognized and managed more frequently by these experts. Two distinct entities, subclavian artery and renal artery stenosis, are also being addressed by interventional nephrologists. This article focuses on arterial interventions performed by interventional nephrologists and describes the epidemiology, techniques, and outcomes of arterial intervention as they relate to the care of patients with hemodialysis access and chronic kidney disease.