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Abstract

While hemodialysis access ligation has been used to manage pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead-induced central venous stenosis (CVS), percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) has also been employed to manage this complication. The advantages of PTA include minimal invasiveness and preservation of arteriovenous access for hemodialysis therapy. In this multi-center study we report the patency rates for PTA to manage lead-induced CVS. Consecutive PM/ICD chronic hemodialysis patients with an arteriovenous access referred for signs and symptoms of CVS due to lead-induced CVS were included in this analysis. PTA was performed using the standard technique. Technical and clinical success was examined. Technical success was defined as the ability to successfully perform the procedure. Clinical success was defined as the ability to achieve amelioration of the signs and symptoms of CVS. Both primary and secondary patency rates were also analyzed. Twenty-eight consecutive patients underwent PTA procedure. Technical success was 95%. Postprocedure clinical success was achieved in 100% of the cases where the procedure was successful. The primary patency rates were 18% and 9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The secondary patency rates were 95%, 86%, and 73% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. On average, 2.1 procedures/year were required to maintain secondary patency. There were no procedure-related complications. This study finds PTA to be a viable option in the management of PM/ICD lead-induced CVS. Additional studies with appropriate design and sample size are required to conclusively establish the role of PTA in the management of this problem.