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Abstract

Efforts to increase the number of functioning arteriovenous fistulas in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 have been impacted by concerns about the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy during diagnostic and interventional procedures for poorly developed fistulas. We conducted a prospective observational study of low volume iodinated contrast administration for fistulography and angioplasty in a CKD stage 4 and stage 5 population pretreated with a sodium bicarbonate protocol. Acute kidney injury was assessed by change in serum creatinine and urinary neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalcin (NGAL). Only 1/18 patients (5.5%) developed acute kidney injury as defined by change in serum creatinine 48 hours after contrast exposure. No patients demonstrated significant change in urinary NGAL at 3 or 48 hours after procedure, nor did any require acute initiation of dialysis. Fistulography alone, or with angioplasty, utilizing a low volume of iodinated contrast and sodium bicarbonate solution for prophylaxis, appears to be safe in the CKD stages 4 and 5 population.