It has been nearly 100 years since the first published report of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by the French chemist Maillard. Since then, our understanding of AGEs in diseased states has dramatically changed. Especially in the last 25 years, AGEs have been implicated in complications related to aging, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although AGE formation has been well characterized by both in vitro and in vivo studies, few prospective human studies exist demonstrating the role of AGEs in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy. As the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States rises, it is essential to identify therapeutic strategies that either delay progression to ESRD or improve morbidity and mortality in this population. This article reviews the role of AGEs, especially those of dietary origin, in ESRD patients as well as potential therapeutic anti-AGE strategies in this population.