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Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Advanced CKD/ESKD: A Review


Address correspondence to: Dr. Rachel M. Holden, 3048C Etherington Hall, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3V6, Canada, Tel.: 613-533-3134, or e-mail:


Patients requiring dialysis often experience a significant decline in their nutritional status through a combination of chronic disease, reduced appetite, and dietary restrictions, which places them at risk for vitamin deficiencies. The concept of vitamin deficiency has evolved from obvious deficiency states to the subtle effects that suboptimal intake may have on chronic disease prevalence or progression. The purpose of this study was to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the status of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis.