Mortality in dialysis patients remains high due to excessive cardiovascular disease burden from coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure. Thus, cardiovascular risk stratification is an important aspect in managing dialysis patients; it may enable early identification of high-risk patients to optimize therapeutic interventions that may ultimately lower their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In particular, serum cardiac biomarkers that are readily measured, inexpensive, reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity, may have potential for cardiovascular risk prediction and stratification. Cardiac troponin represents a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial damage and is a current gold standard test for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction in the general population. On the other hand, natriuretic peptides, released from the heart secondary to increased left ventricular wall stress, have emerged as a diagnostic marker for heart failure in the general population. These two biomarkers reflect unique pathology of the myocardium and are powerful prognostic markers in the dialysis population. This article reviews the diagnostic potentials of these two cardiac biomarkers and their clinical application in the dialysis population.