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Competent stripes for diverse positions of limbs/fins in gnathostome embryos

Authors

  • Sayuri Yonei-Tamura,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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    • 1Contributed equally to this study

  • Gembu Abe,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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    • 1Contributed equally to this study

  • Yoshio Tanaka,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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  • Hiromasa Anno,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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  • Miyuki Noro,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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  • Hiroyuki Ide,

    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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  • Hideaki Aono,

    1. National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 6-31-1 Nagai, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-0316, Japan
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  • Ritsu Kuraishi,

    1. Research Center for Marine Biology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Asamushi, Aomori, Aomori 039-3501, Japan
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  • Noriko Osumi,

    1. Division of Developmental Neuroscience, CTAAR, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
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  • Shigeru Kuratani,

    1. Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, Center for Developmental Biology (CDB), Riken, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
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  • Koji Tamura

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
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*Author for correspondence (email: tam@biology.tohoku.ac.jp)

Abstract

SUMMARY Every vertebrate species has its own unique morphology adapted to a particular lifestyle and habitat. Limbs and fins are strikingly diversified in size, shape, and position along the body axis. This diversity in morphology suggests the existence of a variety of embryonic developmental programs. However, comparisons of various embryos suggest common mechanisms underlying limb/fin formation. Here, we report the existence of continuous stripes of competency for appendage formation along the dorsal midline and the lateral trunk of all of the major jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) groups. We also show that the developing fin buds of cartilaginous fish share a mechanism of anterior–posterior axis formation as well as an shh (sonic hedgehog) expression domain in the posterior bud. We hypothesize a continuous distribution of competent stripes that represents the common developmental program at the root of appendage formation in gnathostomes. This schema would have permitted subsequent divergence into various levels of limbs/fins in each animal group.

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