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Fig. S1. The external appearance of a 49 mm SL female Amphilophus citrinellus classified in the reproductive phase “immature”, and the macroscopic appearance of its gonad. The microscopic appearance of an ovary at this phase was shown completely in Fig. 1A.

Fig. S2. The external appearance and gonad histology observed in juvenile female Amphilophus citrinellus classified in the reproductive phase “developing”. (A) A 101 mm SL female and its excised left ovary. (B) A higher magnification of a “developing” ovary than is shown in Fig. 1B: a longitudinal section of the ovary of a 68 mm SL female showing perinucleolar (PGpn) and cortical alveolar (PGca) step oocytes close together with little vascularization, thin ovarian wall (OW), and absence of atretic ooctyes. Scale bar=200 μm. (C) A close up of the cortical alveolar oocytes from a 97 mm SL female showing the cortical alveoli (ca), the zona pellucida (ZP) and surrounding follicle (granulosa) cell (F) and thecal cell (T) layers. Scale bar=100 μm.

Fig. S3. The external appearance and gonad histology observed in adult female Amphilophus citrinellus classified as “spawning capable”. (A) A 109 mm SL female and its excised left ovary. Some oocytes in this ovary were in the vitellogenesis/secondary growth stage. (B) Transverse section of the ovary of a 148 mm SL female containing late vitellogenic ooctyes, as well as oocytes in less-developed stages. When visible, germinal vesicles (gv) within late vitellogenic oocytes possessed a jagged margin and consistently occurred off-center as if beginning migration to the oocyte periphery, which would indicate the onset of maturation. Scale bar=500 μm. (C) A 100× objective lens oil immersion photomicrograph of the same gonad showing the simple columnar layer of follicle cells (F) lying outside of the thick, striated zona pellucida (ZP). Thecal cells (T) can be seen lying deep to a single-layered epithelium (E). Large yolk globules (yg) and transparent oil droplets (od) are observed within the ooplasm, as well as small cortical alveoli (ca) that lie immediately adjacent to the ZP. Scale bar=50 μm. (D) An ovary from a 116 mm SL female displaying alpha (αAF) and beta (βAF) atretic follicles. Scale bar=200 μm.

Fig. S4. The external appearance and gonad histology observed in an adult female Amphilophus citrinellus classified as “regenerating”. (A) A 103 mm SL female and its excised left ovary. (B) Longitudinal section of the same ovary. The most advanced oocytes are in the cortical alveolar (PGca) step. The oocytes are dispersed and the ovarian wall (OW) is thick. There are several blood vessels (BV) running through the ovary, adjacent to melano-macrophage centers (MMC), which are characterized by containing yellow flocculent material. Scale bar=200 μm.

Fig. S5. Juvenile 69 mm SL male Amphilophus citrinellus, and its excised right testis, which was classified as “developing”. The microscopic appearance of a testis at this phase was shown completely in Fig. 1E.

Fig. S6. The external appearance and gonad histology observed in “spawning capable” adult male Amphilophus citrinellus. (A) A 161 mm SL male and its excised left testis. (B) Transverse section of a “spawning capable” testis from a 133 mm SL male, demonstrating lobular structure. The low numbers of spermatozoa and continuous germinal epithelium (GE) of spermatocysts that extends the entire proximal to distal distance of the lobules indicate a state of early GE development/early maturation and preparation for spawning. Sc=spermatocyte, Sg=spermatogonium, St=spermatid, Sz=spermatozoa. (C) Transverse section of a “spawning capable” testis from a 124 mm SL male. The reduced density of spermatocysts and large numbers of spermatozoa within the lumena of lobules and sperm ducts indicates a more advanced state of development than in Fig. S6B. The discontinuity of the germinal epithelium reaches the periphery of the testis in some places, indicating late GE development/late maturation and readiness for spawning. (D) “Spawning capable” testis of a 149 mm SL male showing regions with large amounts of spermatozoa and other, peripheral, regions devoid of spermatogenesis, possessing only spermatogonia, indicating a more advanced state of late GE development/late maturation than is shown in Fig. S6C. Scale bar=100 μm for B–D.

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Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.