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SUMMARY In teleost fishes, the position of the pelvic fins shift during evolution; this positional shift seems to have diversified their locomotion and feeding behavior, thereby expanding the habitats of these fishes. Thus, such a positional shift of the pelvic fins is one of the significant features of teleost fishes from evolutionary, embryological, and taxonomic viewpoints, but no studies to date have investigated the mechanism for the rostral shift of the pelvic fins from the anal region in teleosts. Examining the fate of the prospective pelvic fin cells of the zebrafish Danio rerio and the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus embryos demonstrates that the prospective pelvic fin cells are originally located near the anus, as seen in tetrapods, but their position shifts with respect to the body trunk after its protrusion from the yolk surface. In this article, we highlight such recent findings and discuss the mechanisms of pelvic fin evolution among teleost fishes.