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Abstract Because lead exposure is a health-related condition that precedes elevated blood lead levels, the aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of lead exposure among children attending lead screening clinics in two Wisconsin counties and to explore its relationship to demographic variables. Based on data obtained from parents, significant relationships were found between the history of possible exposure and the demographic variables of rural or urban home location, rented or owned dwelling, and family income. About 90% of the children were being exposed to at least one possible lead source. The rationale for intensive study of lead exposure's demographic context was validated, and the need for primary prevention of lead exposure was affirmed.