Development of a Family Dynamic Environment Scale for Korean Adolescents


  • Hyun-Sil Kim,

    1. R.N., Ph.D., is Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, South Korea and Post-Doctoral Fellow, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada,
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  • Hun-Soo Kim

    1. M.D., Ph.D., is Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea
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Hyun-Sil Kim, Department of Nursing, Daegu Haany University, #165 Sang-dong, Susung-ku, Daegu 706-060, South Korea. E-mail:


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to develop a short and reliable Family Dynamic Environment Scale (FDES) that would better serve the needs of mental health professionals in detecting the potential for delinquent behavior in Korean adolescents related to a dysfunctional family dynamic environment. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adolescents were initially conducted to generate a set of items, after which, 44 participants were included in method test–retest reliability test. Finally, 544 participants recruited by proportional stratified random sampling were included in a factor analysis. The original version of the FDES had 60 items in 7 categories; the final version included 42 items grouped into 5 factors. Both test–retest reliability and Cronbach's α coefficient were high for the final version of the scale. As a result of factor analysis, five factors were extracted: family psychological climate, parent–child relationship, paternal parenting attitude, family cohesion, and maternal parenting attitude. These contributed 50.3% of the variance in the item scores. All 42 items loaded above .35 on their respective factors. The Cronbach's α coefficients for internal consistency were .95 for the total 42 items and .92, .81, .82, .78, and .71, respectively, for each of the 5 factors.