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Translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales for Users of American Sign Language

Authors

  • Waheedy Samady,

    1. M.D., is UCSD Pediatrics Resident, UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.
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  • Georgia Robins Sadler,

    1. B.S.N., M.B.A., Ph.D., is Clinical Professor of Surgery, UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, California
    2. Associate Director, Community Outreach, Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, California.
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  • Melanie Nakaji,

    1. Ph.D., is Program Manager, American Sign Language Cultural Training, Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, California
    2. UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.
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  • Vanessa L. Malcarne

    1. Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology, San Diego State University, La Jolla, California
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Georgia Robins Sadler, Associate Director, Community Outreach, Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0850. E-mail: gsadler@ucsd.edu

Abstract

ABSTRACT This paper describes the translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales into American Sign Language (ASL). Translation is an essential first step toward validating the instrument for use in the Deaf community, a commonly overlooked minority community. This translated MHLC/ASL can be utilized by public health nurses researching the Deaf community to create and evaluate targeted health interventions. It can be used in clinical settings to guide the context of the provider-patient dialogue. The MHLC was translated using focus groups, following recommended procedures. 5 bilingual participants translated the MHLC into ASL; 5 others back-translated the ASL version into English. Both focus groups identified and addressed language and cultural problems before the final ASL version of the MHLC was permanently captured by motion picture photography for consistent administration. Nine of the 24 items were directly translatable into ASL. The remaining items required further discussion to achieve cultural equivalence with ASL expressions. The MHLC/ASL is now ready for validation within the Deaf community.

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