Effects of a Cognition-Oriented Breast Self-Examination Intervention for Korean Women and Their Spouses


GiYon Kim, Department of Nursing, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 162 Il San Dong, Wonju, Kang Won Do, South Korea, 220-701. E-mail: gykim@yonsei.ac.kr


ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognition-oriented breast self-examination (BSE) intervention program that is based on the Transtheoretical Model and reflects individual characteristics according to BSE stage among Korean women and their spouses.

Design: A time-series nonequivalent control group design was used.

Sample and Measurement: Twenty-four couples in each of 2 groups completed a preintervention test and were evaluated 1, 3, and 6 months later for their knowledge of breast cancer and BSE, spousal encouragement for BSE, perceived confidence in BSE methods, change in BSE stage, and perceived benefits and barriers to BSE. The intervention involved husbands as well as women, and consisted of lectures on breast cancer and BSE, demonstrations and practice with models while being videotaped, and feedback.

Results: There were significant differences between the control and experimental groups for all variables. Change of BSE stage in experimental group showed significantly advancement over time.

Conclusions: This intervention program was effective in promoting regular BSE practice and in enhancing confidence in BSE. The intervention also raised awareness among husbands of the importance of breast health for their wives. Educational interventions for breast cancer prevention should be specified to an individual's stage of BSE.